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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 of course book.

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Esteban Parra

Human GeneticsChapter 2Page 3163 What is Mendelian geneticsthe branch of genetics concerned with patterns and processes of inheritance named after Gregor Mendel the first scientist to work out these principlesWhat is microevolutionshort term evolutionary changeWhat is macroevolutionlong term evolutionary change Molecular Genetics DNA The Genetic CodeWhat does DNA stand for o Deoxyribonucleic AcidWhat is DNA o the molecule that provides the genetic code for biological structures and the means to translate this code The Structure of DNA the DNA molecules resembles a ladder that has been twisted into the shape of a helixthese rungs are made up of chemical units called bases 1 What is a basechemical units adenine thymine guanine cytosine that make up part of the DNA molecule and specify genetic instructions most DNA is contained in the nucleus of cellsa small amount of DNA exist in the mitochondriaWhat is mitochondriathe parts of the cell that produce energyWhat are the four possible types of basesA adenine T thymine G guanine and C cytosineWhat are all biological structures made up predominantlyProteinWhat are protein made up ofAmino Acid whose chemical properties allow them to bond together to form proteinNote Each amino acid is coded for by three of the four chemical bases Ex CGA provide the code for the amino acid Alanine TTT provide the code for the amino acid LysineHow many possible codes can be specified using some combination of the three bases4364 possibilityHow many amino acids are needed to be specified by the genetic code20 Amino AcidsWhich base bond to which baseBase A bonds with base TBase G bonds with base C Functions of DNA can make copies of itselfto control protein synthesiswith the help of RNA2
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