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Chapter 1

ANT205 Textbook Notes - Steadman Section 1 and Chapter 1
ANT205 Textbook Notes - Steadman Section 1 and Chapter 1

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School
University of Toronto Mississauga
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT205H5
Professor
Carolan Wood
Semester
Fall

Description
ANT 205H Introductionto Forensic Anthropology Steadman, section I  FA’scalled in by:  Lawenforcement agencies  Coroners  Medical examiners  Forensic pathologists  Called in for:  Burials  Structural fires  Explosions  Massgraves  Cremations ex.HurricaneKatrina,9/11  Bioarchaeology:  Population oriented approach  Examination of human remainsand artifactsfroman entirehistoricorprehistoric cemetery  Steadman, section I  Physicalanthropology section of theAmericanAcademy ofForensicSciences(AAFS)  1972  Formalized forensic anthropologyasaprofession  Most professional FA’swork in a universitysetting  Some involved with international humanrights  Some have Masters/doctoral degreesand work inM.E.’sofficesorcrime labs  Communicate with variousother expertswhen workingon a case  FA’sactionsand wordscan have an effect onthedefendantsand familiesofthevictim  Report allfindingsno matter how irrelevanttheymay seem  Keep casesconfidential  ProtectID of victim andfamily when teaching  Evidence:  Any object or statementbya witnessthathasbearinginacourt oflaw  Testimonial  physical (objective existence)  Used to reconstruct crime scene  Confirm/discredit alibi Steadman, ch1  (8)The Marty MillerCase: IntroducingForensicAnthropology  1997, Marty Miller shootshisdaughter-wife andkillsher,escapesinto theforest  Few yearsafter,humanremainsarefound byhuntersinthe forest  (9) Human skeleton divided into  a) axialskeleton (head,thorax,pelvis)  b) appendicular skeleton(limb bones)  (9) Bone isviscoelastic  Both rigid and flexible properties  75%=inorganic (mineralslike calciumand phosphorus)  Givesbone rigid strength  Can’t betoorigid or it will break  Organic component =90%collagen  Providesflexibility  Twostructural components  Compact bone and spongy bone  Compact bone (outer cortex)  hard anddense  withstandsstress  providesstrength,resistance,and protection  Spongy bone (interior)  porous  bony spicules (trabeculae)  Form latticework to absorb +distribute stress  (10) concentrated inthemetaphysesand epiphyses(most stressoccursinjoints)  (10) form and function  Bones are well adapted fortheir functions  Long bones divided into3 sections  A) the diaphysis(shaft)  B) 2 or more epiphyses (at the ends)  C) the metaphysis(section b/wtheepand diap)  Periosteum  Layer of tough connective tissue  Envelopsouter cortex ofdiaphysis  (10) medullary cavity  Lined by endosteum  Function of long bones  Produceblood cellsinside medullarycavity  Provide structureto body  Act asleversfor movement  Outer cortex  Verythick cortical bone  Protects medullary cavity  Supports the body  Short bones  Ex.wrist (carpal) *like carpaltunnel!  Ex.ankle (tarsals)  Distribute stress  Have thin cortex  More spongy bone  Skull bones– flat bones  consist of:  outer and inner tablesof compact bone(protectsbrain)  layer of spongy tissue in between (diploe)  (11) Identification process  Inventory  Determine if bones are human  Identify indivbones andthe part ofskeletonitcamefrom  Long,short,flat,irregular (vertebrae)  “siding” =identify which side (lor r)  Laid out on table in anatomicalposition  Record:  identity of bones  their condition  describe presence of soft tissue  (11) Biological Profile  Bone = dynamic,adapts to changesin height, weight,age,activitylevels…  Establish sex  (12) pelvis  most dimorphic (wider infemale; mustaccommodateinfant)  Presence of ventral arc,ischiopubicridge,preauricular sulcus  Breadth of sciatic notchand subpubicconcavity  (13)Biological Profile  Cranium  Size of muscle attachmentsand shape  Males =longer neck muscles(bonyareasnear thembigger)  (14)Superior marginsofthe orbit(supraorbitcalmargins)=thin and sharpin females  Jaw line (gonialangle) and chin– moresquareand pronounced inmales  (15) ID more dif in children bcpelvishasnotwidened yet  (15) measurement of skulland postcranialskeleton  (15)Age  Subadult  Infants,children,teens  Use development of skeletonand teeth  Longitudinal growth occursat epiphysealgrowthplate  Section of hyaline cartilageb/wepiphysis and metaphysis  Chondrocytes– cartilagecells  Proliferate (multiply) and die  Form cartilaginousmatrix whereboneformi
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