Whiteead Chapter 2 - Body Organization

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

NotesFromReadingWHITEHEADCHAPTER2BODYORGANIZATIONPGS1929Introduction Physical anthropology aka biological anthropology is the study of human and nonhuman primate evolution anatomy physiology and geneticsPhysical anthropologists are interested in1Reconstructing the fossil history of primates especially humans2Understanding the evolutionary relationships among living primates3Elucidating the functional significance of the features of primates4Studying the social and maintenance behaviours of primatesWhenever a physical anthropologist describes features of human anatomy it is assumed that the discussion refers to the body in anatomical positionAnatomical position is the standardized reference position used to describe the location of anatomical partsThe Human SkeletonDirectional terminology Applied to the Human SkeletonDirectional Terms Applied to the BODY including the SkeletonTermDefinitionCranial SuperiorToward the headCaudal InferiorAway from the head toward the tailVentral AnteriorToward the bellyDorsal PosteriorToward the back MedialToward or at the midline of the bodyLateralAway from the midline of the bodyIntermediateBetween two structures ProximalCloser to the point of attachment of a limb to a trunkDistalFarther from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunkSuperficialToward or at the body surface DeepAway from the body surface more internalDirectional Terminology Applied to the DentitionDirectional Terms and Surfaces in the DentitionTermDefinitionDistalThe surface of a tooth that faces along the dental arcade away from the midlineMesialThe surface of the tooth that faces along the dental arcade toward the midlineBuccalThe surface of a canine premolar or molar that faces the cheekLabialThe surface of an incisor that faces the lipsLingualThe surface of the tooth that faces the tongue OcclusalThe surface of a tooth that parallels the plane in which upper and lower dentition meet It is often used to describe the surfaces of upper and lower premolars and molars that meet during occlusionIncisalThe cutting edge of an incisor or canine ApicalThe surface of a tooth that faces toward the apex of the rootsPlanes of the BodyPlanes are imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body and are used to describe the relationship in position among anatomical structures Front coronal Midsagittal median and Transverse horizontal crosssectional
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