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Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Anatomical Terminology (pg. 11-24)

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Carolan Wood

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER2ANATOMICALTERMINOLOGYPGS1124Introduction Anatomical nomenclature is both concise and precise allowing unambiguous communication among all researchers who study skeletal materialStandard Anatomical Position That of a human standing looking forward feet together and pointing forward arms alongside the trunk with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing from the bodyLeft and Right refer to the sides of the individual being studied not to the observers own right or left sides Cranial skeletal anatomy refers to the skull the remainder of the skeleton is called postcranial anatomy Axial Skeleton refers to the bones of the trunk including the vertebrae sacrum ribs and sternumAppendicular Skeleton refers to the bones of the limbs including the shoulder and pelvic girdles and the hands and feet Planes of ReferenceSagittal midsagittal median or midline plane divides the body into symmetrical right and left halves Parasagittal section is any planar slice through the body that parallels the sagittal plane Coronal frontal plane passes through bregma the intersection of the sagittal and coronal structures and divides the body into anterior and posterior halves and is places at right angles to the sagittal planeParacoronal Section is any planar slice through the body that parallels the coronal plane Transverse horizontal plane slices through the body at any height but always passes perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planesDirectional Terms Hominid The zoological family of primates to which humans and their immediate ancestors and nearrelatives belongOrthograde Trunk upright ie humansPronograde Trunk horizontal ie quadrupedsGENERAL DIRECTIONAL TERMSTERMDEFINITIONSuperior Toward the head end of the hominid body Cephalic and Cranial are synonymous with superior in biped and unlike superior they can be used homologous for both bipeds and quadrupedsEx The superior boundary of the human parietal bone is the sagittal sutureInferiorBody parts away from the head of the hominid body Caudal toward the tail is often used in the description of quadruedal anatomyEx The inferior surface of the calcaneus or heel bone is the part of the bone that rests nearest to or lies in contact with the groundAnteriorToward the front of the hominid body Ventral toward the belly may be used homologous for bipeds and quadrupedEx The sternum is located anterior to the vertebral columnPosteriorToward the back of the hominid body Dorsal is often used for homologous parts of the quadruped anatomyEx The occipital bone is on the posterior and inferior end of the skullMedialToward the midlineEx The sternum is medial to the adjacent distal ribsLateralAway from the midline
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