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Chapter 5

BIO152H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: X-Ray Crystallography, Hemoglobin, Hydrophile


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO152H5
Professor
Maria Arts
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5 Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Concept 5.4
Proteins
Account for more than 50% of the dry mass of cells
Can speed up changes, role in defense, storage, transport, cell movement,
structure support
Most enzymes are proteins
Enzymatic proteins regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts
An enzyme can do work over and over again
Proteins are the most sophisticated molecules known
Proteins are all constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids
Bonds between amino acids are peptide bonds
Polymer of amino acid polypeptide
Protein is made up of one or more polypeptides
Amino acid monomers
Amino acids have a carboxyl group to an amino group
Center of the amino acid, asymmetric carbon called α carbon
o Has 4 partners: amino group, carboxyl group, H atom, R(side chain)
The physical and chemical properties of the side chain affect the characteristics
of the polypeptide
Non-polar hydrophobic
Protein structure and function
Frederick sanger pioneer in determining the amino acid sequence
o Used agents to break polypeptides at certain places, then chemical
methods to determine amino acid sequence in these fragments
The amino acid sequence of each polypeptide that determines what 3d structure
the protein will have
Globular proteins roughly spherical
Fibrous proteins long fibers
Levels of protein structure
1. Primary structure (linear chain of amino acids)
- Linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence
- Primary structure is like the order of letters in a very long word
- Structure determined by genetic information, not random linking
- Primary structure then dictates 2nd and 3rd structure
- Due to chemical nature of the backbone and R groups
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