BIO152H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Microscopy, Cell Fractionation
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Chapter 6 Review
Concept 6.1 Biologists use Microscopes and the Tools of
Biochemistry to Study Cells (pp. 105–108)
• Improvements in microscopy that affect the parameters of magnification, resolution, and contrast have
catalyzed progress in the study of cell structure. Light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM),
as well as other types, remain important tools.
• Cell biologists can obtain pellets enriched in particular cellular components by centrifuging disrupted cells
at sequential speeds, a process known as cell fractionation. Larger cellular components are in the pellet
after lower-speed centrifugation, and smaller components are in the pellet after higher-speed
Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have Internal Membranes that
Compartmentalize their Functions (pp. 108–111)
• All living cells are bounded by a plasma membrane.
• Prokaryotic cells lack nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles, while eukaryotic cells have
internal membranes that compartmentalize cellular functions.
• The surface-to-volume ratio is an important parameter affecting cell size and shape.
• Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles: a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
apparatus, and mitochondria. Chloroplasts are present only in cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes.
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