BIO205H5 Chapter 11: Chapter 11 Reading

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Published on 5 Nov 2017
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BIO205 CHAPTER 11 (CORRESPONDING TO LECTURE 7)
POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONS
Spatial structure: the pattern of density and spacing of individuals in a population
o Main focus of chapter
The distribution of populations is limited to ecologically suitable habitats
o Species niche: range of biotic and abiotic conditions a species can tolerate
o Determining suitable habitats
Fundamental niche: range of abiotic conditions under which species can
persist
Ex. Temp, humidity, salinity conditions
Allows for survival, growth and reproduction
Realized niche: Range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a
species can persist
Determines geographic range: measure of total area covered by a
population
o Note that individuals do not occupy every location within
range due to climate, soil, vegetation. . .
Example Sugar Maple. Limited in north by low
temp, in south by high temp and in west by
drought. Does not grow everywhere in geographic
range. You will not find in marshes, new sand
dunes, newly burned areas. . . on page 249.
Example horse gentian plant. Present in patches
within a geographic range as well. Grows best in
clearings and areas of low acidity.
Patterns of these distributions suggests that only
certain habitats are suitable. Tested with
experiment of the four moss species that were
planted outside of their habitat. Most species
experienced slower growth and all experienced
reduced health. See more info of method on page
250.
Example American Chestnut Tree reduction of realized niche by a
fungus on page 249.
o Ecological Niche Modelling: the process of determining the suitable habitat
conditions for a species.
More suitable habitat = larger potential growth of population
Ecological envelope: the range of ecological conditions that are predicted
to be suitable for a species (Similar to realized niche, except that
ecological envelope is a prediction of potential living
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Modelling the Spread of Invasive Species
o Using ecological niche modelling to analyze the
introduction of a species to a continent where it has not
been before
o Chinese bushclover: purposefully brought to North
Carolina from east Asia to control erosion, reclaim land
that had been mined and provide food for cattle. Over
time, the plant spread and displaced native plants.
Researchers collected data to quantify the ecological
envelope of the Chinese bushclover in Asia to predict
future geographic range of the Chinese bushclover in
North America. This is quite accurate, but there are also
additional ecological factors that might affect the accuracy
of the prediction.
Applications?
o To bring a species back from the brink of extinction, they
must know what habitat is most suitable for that species.
This way they can successfully reintroduce them into the
best habitats. They will able to predict the area over which
the species might spread to also analyze the damage to
the habitat.
o Habitat suitability and Global Warming
Knowledge of the above can be used to understand how geographic
ranges of species shift as environmental conditions change
Example: Figure 11.5: Changes in distribution of fish in the North Sea.
From 1977 to 2003 the temperature of the water at the bottom of the
North Sea increased by 2 degrees. Surveys showed that there was an
increase in the number of fish collected per year from 60 to 90 in 2
decades. It was also found that the total number of fish species collected
per year was positively correlated with the average sea temperatures
during the previous 5 years. This suggests that warmer temperatures are
more hospitable to a greater variety of fish species.
This affects other animals as well as people who fish in this
community. While warmer temperatures might increase fish
diversity, that most of the new species have no commercial value
to fishers.
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Document Summary

Bio205 chapter 11 (corresponding to lecture 7) Limited in north by low temp, in south by high temp and in west by drought. You will not find in marshes, new sand dunes, newly burned areas. on page 249: example horse gentian plant. Present in patches within a geographic range as well. Grows best in clearings and areas of low acidity: patterns of these distributions suggests that only certain habitats are suitable. Tested with experiment of the four moss species that were planted outside of their habitat. Most species experienced slower growth and all experienced reduced health. Carolina from east asia to control erosion, reclaim land that had been mined and provide food for cattle. Over time, the plant spread and displaced native plants. Researchers collected data to quantify the ecological envelope of the chinese bushclover in asia to predict future geographic range of the chinese bushclover in. This way they can successfully reintroduce them into the best habitats.

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