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BIO152H5 (140)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7- Inside of the cell.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fiona Rawle

1 Chapter 7- Inside the Cell Phylogeny: evolutionary history Morphology: form-science Glycolipids: lipids that contain carbohydrate groups Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Location of DNA Internal Cytoskeleton Overall Size Membranes and Organelles Bacteria and In nucleoid (not Extensive internal Limited in extent, Usually small Archae membrane bound); membranes only in relative to relative to plasmids also photosynthetic eukaryotes eukaryotes common species; limited types and numbers of organells Eukaryotes Inside nucleus Large numbers of Extensive— Most are larger (membrane organelles; many usually found than prokaryotes bound); plasmids types of organelles throughout volume extremely rare of cell Compartmentalization (eukaryotes) offers two key advantages: 1. Incompatible chemical reactions can be separated. 2. The efficiency of chemical reactions is increased. Eukaryotic cell Membrane (structure) Components Function components (structure) Nucleus Double (“envelope”); Chromosomes Genetic info openings called nuclear pores Nucleolus Assembly of ribosomal subunits Structural support Nucleus Lamina Ribosomes None Large/small subunits— Protein synthesis complex of RNAand proteins Rough ER Single; contains Network of branching Protein synthesis and 2 (endomembrane system) receptors for entry of sacs processing selected proteins Ribosomes associated Golgi apparatus Single; contains Stack of flattened Protein processing (e.g. (endomembrane system) receptors for products of cisternae glycosylation) rough ER Smooth ER Single; contains Network of branching Lipid synthesis (endomembrane system) enzymes for sacs synthesizing Reservoir of calcium Enzymes for ions phospholipids synthesizing lipids Manufactures phospholipids used in cell membranes Peroxisomes Single; contains Enzymes that catalyze Processing of fatty acids transporters for selected oxidation reactions macromolecules Oxidation reactions- Catalase (processes enzyme detoxifies peroxide) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 2 by converting it into water and oxygen Lysosomes Single; contains proton Acid hydrolases Digestion and recycling. pumps (catalyze hydrolysis pH 5 reactions) Phagocytosis Autophagy Receptor mediated endocytosis Vacuoles Single; contains Varies—pigments, oils, Varies—coloration, transporters for selected carbohydrates, water, or storage of oils, molecules toxins carbohydrates, water or toxins Mitochondria Double; outer contains Enzymes that catalyze ATP production enzymes for processing oxidation—reduction pyruvate; inner contains reactions,ATP synthesis enzymes forATP production Chloroplasts Double; plus Pigments Production of ATP and membrane-bound sacs sugars via Enzymes that catalyze in interior photosynthesis oxidation-reduction 3 reactions Thylakoids are stacked into piles called grana- pigments, enzymes, molecular machines that convert light energy into carbs Stroma- contains enzymes and substrates Cytoskeleton None Actin filaments Structural support; Intermediate filaments Movement of materials; Microtubules In some species, movement of whole cell Plasma membrane Single; contains Phospholipid bilayer Selective permeability transport and receptor with transport and —maintains proteins receptor proteins intracellular environment Cell wall None Carbohydrate fiber Protection, structural running through support carbohydrate or protein matrix Cytosol: fluid portion of cytoplasm Lumen: interior of rough ER. Interior of any sac-like structure in a cell or body. Newly manufactured protein undergo folding and other types of processing Cis side of Golgi apparatus is closest to rough ER and nucleus. Receives products from rough ER. Trans side ships them out toward the cell surface. Phagocytosis Autophagy 1. The plasma membrane detects 1. Adamage
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