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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 How Genes Work.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO152H5
Professor
Fiona Rawle
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 15 How Genes Work 15.1 What Do Genes Do? Knockout mutants/null mutants/loss-of-function mutants: Alleles that do not function at all. One-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis: Genes contain the information needed to make proteins, many of which function as enzymes. Genetic screen: Technique for picking certain types of mutants out of many thousands of randomly generated mutants. *Figure 15.2 Experimental support for the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis. 15.2 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology -Crick’s idea was that different combinations of bases could specify the 20 amino acids. DNAas the Intermediary between Genes and Proteins -Jacob and Monod predicted that mRNA carry information from DNAto the site of protein synthesis. -RNApolymerase synthesizes RNAmolecules according to the information provided by the sequence of bases in a particular stretch of DNA. Does not require primer. Question: How is information transferred from DNAto RNA? Hypothesis: RNAis synthesized by complementary base pairing with DNA. Null hypothesis: RNAis not synthesized by complementary base pairing with DNA. Experimental setup: Reaction mix using: 1. Ribonucleotides (A,U,C,G) 2. RNApolymerase 3. DNAstrand with thymine as the only base. Prediction:An RNAstrand will be produced containing only adenine. Prediction of null hypothesis: No RNAstrand will be produced, or an RNAstrand with a random assortment of bases will be produced. Results: RNAstrand with adenine as the only base. Conclusion: Information is transferred from DNAto RNAvia complementary base-pairing. The Central Dogma Francis Crick: DNAcodes for RNAwhich codes for protein. DNA RNA protein DNA is the hereditary material. Genes consist of specific stretches of DNA that code for products used in the cell. The sequen
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