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PLANTS January 29.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fiona Rawle

PLANTS I January 29 • Green plants: green algae and land plants; green plant and land plant are monophyletic group but green algae is paraphyletic group • Green algae: photosynthetic orgs in aquatics, closest living relative to land plants (form 
monophyletic group), transition from aquatic to terrestrial (land plants evolved from algae) • Land plants: first organisms with tissues exposed to air, colonized land in conjunction with fungi 
 ○ Fungi = below ground and provided nutrients o Land plants = sugars and products of photosynthesis ANALYZING MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS  Similarities between green algae and land plants 
 o Chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b, presence of beta-carotene o Arrangement of thylakoids
 o Composition - starch, sperm, peroxisomes (organelles in which specialized oxidation reactions take place)  Algae similar to land plants = Coleochaetophyceae (coleochaetes) and Charaphyceae 
(stoneworts) • Major lineages  Nonvascular Plants  Hepaticophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts), Bryophyta (mosses)  Liverworts and hornworts lack vascular tissues  Mosses have specialize tissues that conduct water but not true vascular tissue  Small, grow close to ground  Seedless Vascular Plants  Seed: consists of embryo, store of nutritive tissue, surrounded by tough protective layer  i.e. lycophyta, psiolphyta, sphenophyta, pteridophtya  Relatively small in stature  Seed Plants  6 lineages: Ginkophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Pinophyta, Conifers, Anthophyta  First 5 = 5 gymnosperms  Angiosperms - seeds develop inside carpel (protective structure) EVALUATING MOLECULAR PHYLOGENIES • Most basal branches led to green algae (similar to land plants) ○ Supports that land plants evolved from green algae • Caraphyceae is the sister group to land plants ○ closest living relative
 ○ Multicellular
 ○ Live in freshwater 
○ Supports that land plants evolved form multicellular ancestor in aquatic habitat • Land plants are monophyletic 
 ○ Supports that transition from water to land occurred once • Nonvascular plants = earliest among land plants 
 ○ Unclear whether it is paraphyletic or monophyletic • Some mosses have simple water conducting tissues, liverworts
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