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BIO153H5 (147)
Chapter 28

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Christoph Richter

Chapter 28 NotesBacteria have a unique compound called peptidoglycan in their cell wallsArchae have unique phospholipids in their plasma membranesthe hydrocarbon tails of the phospholipids contain isoprene Antibiotics that poison bacterial ribosomes do not affect the ribosomes of archea and eukaryotes If all ribosomes were identical these antibiotics would kill you along with the bacterial species that was supposed to be targeted The lineages in the domains Bacteria and Archaea are ancient diverse abundant and ubiquitous Oldest fossils derived from Bacteria Table 281 on Page 547Most of the microbes microscopic organisms are bacteria or archaea Bacteria and Archaea are abundant In terms of total biomass of living material on our planet bacteria and archaea are dominant life forms Bacteria and archae are found almost everywhere They live in environments as demanding as oxygenfree mud hot springs and salt flats Much more is known about eukaryotic diversity than prokaryotic diversity even though many more prokaryotes Of the hundreds or thousands of bacterial species living in and on your body a tiny fraction can disrupt normal body functions enough to cause illness Many species protect their host from bacteria that cause disease Bacteria that cause disease are said to be pathogenic Pathogenic forms come from several different lineages in the domain Bacteria Pathogenic bacteria tend to affect tissues at the entry points to the body such as wounds or pores in the skin the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and the urogenital canal To establish a causative link between a specific microbe and a specific disease Koch proposed that 4 criteria had to be met1The microbe must be present in individuals suffering from the disease and absent from healthy individuals Koch was able to show that the bacterium Basillus anthracis was always present in the blood of cattle suffering from anthrax but absent from healthy individuals
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