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BIO153H5 (147)
Chapter 35

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Christoph Richter

Chapter 35 NotesVirus obligate intracellular parasiteObligateViral replication is completely dependent on host cells IntracellularViruses must enter a host cell for replication to occurParasiteViruses reproduce at the expense of their host cellsViruses are NOT cells and are not made up of cells so they are not considered organisms They cannot manufacture their own ATP or amino acids or nucleic acids and they cannot produce proteins on their ownViruses enter atake over its biosynthetic machinery and use that machinery host cellto manufacture a new generation of viruses Outside of host cells viruses simply exist FluInfluenza viruses enter cells lining respiratory tract and make copiesBecause NOT organisms viruses are not given scientific names Most biologists would argue that viruses are not alive because they lack the attributes of life Viruses have genome they are superbly adapted to exploit the metabolic capabilities of their host cells and they evolve Each type of virus infects a specific unicellular species or cell type in a multicellular species and nearly all organisms examined thus far are parasitized by at least one kind of virus If you leaned over a boat and filled a wine bottle with seawater it would contain about 10 billion virus particles or virionsclose to one and a half times the worlds population of humansTABLE 351 ON PAGE 743Epidemica disease that rapidly affects a large number of individuals over a widening areaAn epidemic that is worldwide in scope is called a pandemic Influenza outbreak of 19181919 called Spanish flu most devastating pandemic recorded to date It was virulentmeaning it tended to cause severe diseaseIn terms of total number of people affected the measles and smallpox epidemics among Native peoples of the Americas and 1918 influenza outbreak are almost certain to be surpassed by incidence of AIDSAcquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS is an affliction caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV
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