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Chapter 41

BIO204 CH41 (Lecture 13)

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Sanja Hinic- Frlog

CH41 (13) November-03-13 7:46 AM Metabolic water - water from the by-product of cellular respiration Anatomy - the study of an organism's physical structure Physiology - the study of how the physical structures in an organism function Adaptations are studied by biologists (who also study anatomy and physiology) - heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reproduce in a certain environment better than individuals that lack those traits Form, function, and adaptation • The role of fitness trade-offs ○ Modification of human spine is considered an adaptation to support upright posture, but it is not perfect ○ Trade-off - an inescapable compromisebetween traits  Ex: there is a trade-off between offspring quality (egg size) and quantity of egg • Study of anatomy and physiology - study of compromise and constraint as well as adaptation • Acclimatization/ acclimation - a phenotypic change in an individual in response to short-term changes in the environment • Adaptation - refers only to a genetic change in a population in response to natural selection exerted by the environment • The ability to acclimatize is an adaptation Tissues, organs, and systems: how does structure correlate with function? • The structure's (if adaptive) size, shape and compositioncorrelates closely with its function. ○ Ex. Diet and beak structure Ex. Cells for transport have large areas of plasma membrane ○ • The mechanism responsible: If a mutant allele alters the size or shape of a structure in a way that makes it function more efficiently, individuals who have the allele will produce more offspringthan others • Structure-functioncorrelations also exist at: ○ Tissues  Animals are multicellular (sponges are simplest)  Tissue - a group of similar cells that function as a unit □ Sponges only have epithelial tissue  Embryonic tissues give rise to 4 adult tissue types: 1) Connective tissue - cells that are loosely arranged in a liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix which is secreted by the connective tissue cells themselves  Each type secretes a distinct type of extracellular matrix  Loose connective tissue contains array of fibrous proteins in a soft matrix and serves as a packing material between organs or padding under the skin  Bone and cartilage (have hard or stiff extracellular matrix) - structural support, protective enclosures  Blood - has a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma, functions in transport 2) Nervous tissue - consists of nerve cells/ neurons and several types of supporting cells; contain cells with long projections (deliver electrochemical signals) 3) Muscle tissue - functions in movement, fibers contract  Skeletal muscle - consists of long cells (muscle fibers)  Cardiac muscle - makes up wall of the heart, branched cells which help in transmitting signals  Smooth muscles - cells are tapered at each end and form a muscle tissue that lines the walls of the digestive tract and of the blood vessels (responsible for involuntary movement) 4) Epithelial tissues (also epithelia) - covers outside of body and lines surfaces of organs (serve a specialized function, consist of several tissue) and forms glands (a group of cells that secrete specific molecules or solutions) - Provide protection and regulate which materials pass across body surfaces - Have short life spans because they are exposed to harsh environments - Found in the lumen of intestine (apical surface is folded into fingerlike projections, basolateral surface nutrients are transported), trachea (windpipe) (apical secretes mucus and contains cilia), glandular (windpipe) (apical secretes mucus and contains cilia), glandular epithelial cells Apical side faces away from other tissues and toward environment Basolateral side faces the interior or the animals and is connected to other tissues Organs and Systems Biologists have to work at various levels or organization to gain a thorough understanding of how the body operates Atomic/molecular < cellular < tissue < organ < system < organism How does body size affect animal physiology?  Physical laws affect body size  Large animals eat more, produce more waste, take longer to mature, reproduce more slowly. Small animals are the opposite Surface area/ volume relationship - Dependency of rates of diffusionand nutrients are used and waste products are produced -
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