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Chapter 36

Ch.36 Plant function and form

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Ingo Ensminger

Plant function and form October-15-11 4:57 PM 36.1 Plant form: themes with many variations - Root: anchors the plant into the ground - Shoot: harvests light and CO 2 - Two systems connected by vascular tissue - Water transported up, sugars transported in both directions - Herbaceous plant: lacks wood and short lived stem Roots: - Taproot: from the stem - Lateral roots: more horizontal and stems from taproot - Not unusual for roots to account for over 80% of a plant's weight - Perennial: root system that lives for many years - Phenotypicplasticity: same genotype can result in multiple phenotypes - Roots grow to soils with new nutrients because old soil has no more nutrients - Adventitious root: roots that develop from the shoot system instead of root system Shoots: - Nodes: where leaves are attached - Internodes: segments between the nodes - Axillary buds: where nodes attach to stem, may develop into branch or flower - Apical bud: tip of stem and branch that grows, may develop into flower - Internodes increase in amount as plant grows - Variations in size and shape is important in light gathering systems - Rosettesare compact growth forms - Rosettesform in species with little internodes - Not all stems get CO 2nd photons - Spines are protectivestructures of cactuses - Stolon modified stems run over soil surface, produce leaf at each node 1 meristem cell, 1 differentiated cell - Apical meristems: tip of roots and shoots - Meristemsgive rise to 3 tissue types(Puppy Goes Poop): ○ Protoderm:dermal tissue system ○ Ground meristem:ground tissue system (photosynthesisand storage) ○ Procambium:Vascular tissue system - Root cap: protects apical meristem,constantly replenished by meristem - Mucigel: lubricant produced by root cap - Zone of cellular division: contains apical meristem,cells divide - Zone of cellular division: contains apical meristem,cells divide - Zone
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