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BIO205H5 (48)
Chapter 7

Ch. 7 Animal adaptions to the environment

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Christoph Richter

Animal Adaptions to the Environment October-11-11 1:17 PM 7.1 Size imposes a fundamental constraint on the evolution of organisms • animals range from 2-10ug to 100,000kg • Scaling is the predictable change in morphologicaland physical features • As the size of an organism increases, the surface area relative to the volumedecreases , diffusion of oxygen is increasingly difficult ○ Complex wrinkled surface  No point on the interior is more than a few mm from the surface  Total surface area is where oxygen can diffuse is greater ○ Active transport of oxygen ○ Larger animals use complex mechanismssuch as lungs and blood vessels • Similar mechanisms works for exchange of materials, such as the digestive system 7.2 Animals have various ways of acquiring energy and nutrients • Herbivory ○ Categorized by the type of plant material they eat ○ Has specialized bacteria and protozoa in digestive tracts to digest cellulose ○ Fermentationis the conversionof sugar to inorganic acids and alcohols ○ Ruminants have highly complex digestive system for cellulose  Produces fatty acids, major source of food energy  Most of digestion takes place in foregut or less efficiently in the hindgut ○ Lagomorphsresort to coprophagy - ingestion of fecal matter for further digestion ○ Gallinaceous are seed eating birds, has three separate chambers ○ Some fish feed on algal growth, lacks lignin, , low stomachpH • Carnivory ○ Simple, shorter intestines and stomach • Omnivory ○ Food habits varies with seasons, stage of life cycle, size and growth rate 7
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