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BIO205H5 (48)
Chapter 9

Ch.9 Properties of populations

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Christoph Richter

Propertiesof Populations October-12-11 8:53 AM 9.1 Organisms may be unitary or modular • Modular organisms (someplants, corals, sponges, bryozoans) sends new roots or break off (clones), seemingly to be individuals • Genet is a plant produced by sexual reproduction • Ramets are plants produced asexually (modular) ○ Extends life 9.2 The distribution of a population defines its spatial location • An area that encompassesall individuals of a species, the distributions describes the population's geographic range • Population distribution is influenced by suitable environmentalconditions -> high tolerance allows for widespread geographic range • Geographic barriers such as: mountains, oceans • Individuals are not distributed equally in a geographic range ○ Continental scale: suitability of climate Particular area: microclimates • Local subpopulations are due to environmentalheterogeneity • Metapopulationis a collective of local subpopulations 9.3 Abundance reflects population density and distribution • Abundance ○ Population density ○ Area which the population is distributed • Crude density is number of individuals in an area ○ Howeverindividuals do not cover an area equally • Distribution can be random, uniform, or clump • Uniform distribution came from negative interaction, i.e. competition • Spatial distribution of individuals can be described at multiple spatial scales • Ecological density is the number of individuals per unit of available living space 9.4 Determining density requires sampling • Population size = density * area • Quadrats, used mostly for sessile animals, good for uniform, not clumped • Mark-recapture,used for mobile population ○ 9.5 Populations have age structures • Age structure is the number or proportion
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