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BIO207H5 (42)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Textbook Notes.docx

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Nicole Myers

BIO207 Chapter 11 NotesGenotype and PhenotypeTraitscharacteristics of an individual also called charactersSome traits are heritabletransmitted from generation to generation Traits are under the control of genesGenotypegenetic constitution of an organismPhenotypean observable trait or set of traits structural and functional of an organism produced by the interaction between its genotypes and the environmentphenotypes can be visible or invisible but measureable ex Blood typeMendels Experimental DesignGregor Johann Mendel Selffertilization selfinganthers at the ends of the stamen produce pollen which lands on the pistil of the same flower and fertilizes the plantCrossfertilization crossthe fusion of male gametes from one individual and female gametes from anotheronce crossfertilization occurs a zygote develops in the seeds Truebreeding or purebreedingastrain in which mating of individuals yields progeny with the same genotype as the parentsMendels Principle of SegregationP generationparental generationF1the progeny of the P mating is the first filial generationF2the subsequent generation produced by breeding together the F1 offspring is the second filial generationMonohybrid crossescrosses between truebreeding strains that had alternative forms of a single trait Reciprocal crossesa pair of crosses in which the genotypes of the males and females for a particular trait is reversedParticulate factorsthe term Mendel used for the entities that carry hereditary information and are transmitted from parents to progeny through the gametes These factors are now called genes
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