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Chapter 19

Chapter 19 - Textbook Notes.doc

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Nicole Myers

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Chapter19GeneticAnalysisofDevelopmentDevelopmentoverall process of growth differentiation and morphogenesis by which a zygote gives rise to an adult organism It involves a programmed sequence of phenotypic events that are typically irreversibleTotipotentdescribing a cell that has the potential to develop into any cell type of the organismFate mapa diagram of an early embryo showing the cell types and tissues that different embryonic cells subsequently develop intoDeterminationprocess early in development that establishes the fate of a cell that is te differentiated cell type it will become Induction1 stimulation of the synthesis of a gene product in response to the action of an inducer that is a chemical or environment agent2 in development the ability of one cell or group of cells to influence the developmental fate of other cellsDifferentiationseries of cellspecific changes in gene expression by which determined cells give rise to cell types with characteristic structures and functionsMorphogenesisgeneration of formoverall developmental process that generates the size shape and organization of cells tissues and organsGenomes of saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Drosophilia melanogaswter fruit fly and have been completely sequencedCloningthe production of many identical copies of a DNA molecule by replication in a suitable host also called DNA cloning gene cloning and molecular cloningthe generation of cells or individuals genetically identical to themselves and to their parentPolytene chromosomea special type of chromosome representing a bundle of numerous chromatids that have arisen by repeated cycles of replication of single chromatids without nuclear division This type of chromosome is characteristic of various tissues of Diptera Keynotedevelopment results from differential gene activity of a genome that contains a constant amount of DNA from the zygote stage to the mature organism stage Nonetheless the genes are only part of the equation for development environmental factors can affect the phenotype of an adult organism as evidence by phenotypic differences in cloned mammals from the parent that donated the nucleus for cloningSex Determination in Mammals
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