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BIO207H5 (42)
Chapter 21

Chapter 21 - Textbook Notes.doc

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Nicole Myers

Chapter21PopulationGeneticsScience of genetics is divided into 4 subdisciplines transmission genetics molecular genetics population genetics and quantitative genetics Transmission geneticsconcerned primarily with genetic processes that occur within individuals and how genes are passed from one individual to anotheroTherefore unit of study is the individualMolecular geneticsinterested in molecular nature of heredity how genetic information is encoded within the DNA and how biochemical processes of the cell translate the genetic information into influencing the phenotypePopulation geneticsapplies the principles of transmission genetics to large groups of individuals focusing on the transmission processes at one or a few genetic lociQuantitative geneticsconsiders the transmission of traits simultaneously determined by many genes Both population and quantitative genetics apply Mendelian principles and they are amenable to mathematical treatment Mendelian theoryDarwinian theoryneoDarwin synthesisthe foundation of modern biologyGenetic structure of populationspatterns of genetic variation found among individuals within groupsand how these patterns vary geographically and change over time A Mendelian populationa group of interbreeding individuals who share a common set of genes The genes shard by the individuals is called the gene poolEvolutionaim of population geneticsa change in population or species over time HardyWeinberg lawmathematical model to describe how the gene pool of a population will change under various conditionsset of equations that describes the influence of random mating on the allele and genotype frequencies of an infinitely large populationsGeneticStructureofPopulationsPopulation genetics needs to be described quantitativelydone so by calculating genotype and allele frequenciesA frequency is a proportion always ranging between 0 and 1
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