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BIO207H5 (42)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fiona Rawle

Chapter 2Mendelian GeneticsPrincipal PointsThe genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism whereas the phenotype is the observable characteristic produced by interaction bw genotype environmentGenes provide the potential for the development of characteristics this potential can be affected by interactions with other genes and with the environmentPRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATIONtwo members of gene pair segregate from each other in the formation of gametesPRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENTmembers of different gene pairs are transmitted independently of one another during gamete productionTo determine an unknown genotype usually individual with dominant phenotypea TEST CROSS is made with a homozygous recessive individual that tells the genotype of unknownGenotype and PhenotypeHEREDITY TRAITS are transmitted from one generation to another aka charactersThese traits are controlled by genesGenes provide potential for developing a particular phenotypic characteristicGenes are a starting point for determining the structure and function of an organism and the route to the mature phenotypic state is highly complex involving many interacting biochemical pathwaysActions of other genes and productsGenotypeEnvironmental influences and random developmental eventsPhenotype expression of physical traitMendels Experimental DesignMendel crossbred pea plants PISUM SATIVUM for its characteristics such as colour shape etcFor a Genetic Cross Two diploid individuals differing in phenotype are allowed to produce haploid gametes by meiosis Fusion of male and female gametes produces zygotes from which the diploid progeny individuals are generated The phenotypes of the offspring are analyzed to provide clues to heredity of those phenotypes
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