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Ch 1 summary.docx

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Karen Williams

Ch. 1 BIO207 Chapter Summary -organisms contain genetic material that governs an individual’s characteristics and that is transferred from parent to progeny -Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material of all living organisms and some viruses. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is the genetic material only of certain viruses. In prokaryote and eukaryotes, the DNA is always double-stranded, whereas in viruses the genetic material may be double-or single stranded DNA or RNA, depending on the virus -DNA and RNA are macromolecules composed of smaller building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose in DNA, ribose in RNA) to which are attached a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. In DNA, the 4 possible bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; in RNA, the four possible bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil -According to Watson and Crick’s model, the DNA molecule consists of two polynucleotide (polymers of nucleotides) chains joined by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases: Adenine (A) and Thymine (T), Guanine (G) and Cytosine (C). In a double helix. -the three major types of DNA determined by analyzing DNA outside the cell are the right handed A- and B- DNAs and the left handed Z-DNA. The common form found in cells is closest in structure to B-DNA. A- DNA exists in cells in certain DNA- protein complexes. Z-DNA may exist in cells, but its physiological significance is unknown -The genetic material of viruses may be linear or circular double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, or single-stranded RNA, depending on the virus. The genomes of some viruses are organized into a single chromosome, whereas others have a segmented genome -the genetic material of prokaryotes is double-stranded localized into one or a few chromosomes. Typically prokaryotic chromosomes are circular, but linear chromosomes are found in a number of species -a bacterial chromosome is compacted into the nucleoid region by the supercoiling of the DNA helix and the fo
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