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BIO310H5 (13)
Chapter 1

Ch. 1 book notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Angela B Lange

Ch 1 Homeostasis A framework for human physiologyThe Scope of Human Physiology physiology is the study of how living organisms work physiologists are interested in function and integration how parts of the body work together at various levels of organization and most importantly in the entire organisms many functions are still only poorly understood learning more and more one of the major reasons is related to the recent landmark sequencing of the human genomeas the functions of all the proteins encoded by the genome are uncovered their application to the functioning of the cells and organ systems discussed in this text will provide an eversharper view of how our bodies work physiological genomics integration of molecular biology with physiology pathophysiology disease states can be viewed as physiology gone wrong Makes an understanding of physiology essential for the study and practice of medicine How is the Body OrganizedCells the basic Units of living organismssimplest structural units into which a complex multicellular organism can be divided and still retain the functions characteristic of life are called cells One of the unifying generalizations of biology is that certain fundamental activities are common to almost all cellsex A human liver cell and an amoeba are remarkably similar in terms of how they exchange materials with their intermediate environments obtain energy from organic nutrients synthesize complex molecules duplicate themselves and detect and respond to signals in their immediate environments each human organism begins as a single cell a fertilized egg which divides to create two cells each of which divides in turn to result in four cells and so onduring development each cell becomes specialized for the performance of a particular function such as producing force and movement muscle cells or generating electric signals nerve cells Cell differentiation process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell in addition to differentiating cells migrate to new locations during development and form selective adhesions with other cells to produce multicellular structuresIn this manner the cells of the body arrange themselves in various combinations to form a hierarchy of organized structures differentiated cells with similar properties aggregate to form tissues tissues combine with other types of tissues to organs organs work together to form an organ system about 200 distinct kinds of cells can be identified in the body in terms of differences in structure and function when cells are classified according to the broad types of function they perform four categories emerge1 muscle cells2 nerve cells3 epithelial cells4 connective tissue cells within these functional categories specializations arise ex skeletal cardiac and smoothMuscle cells specialized to generate the mechanical forces that produce movement
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