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BIO310H5 (13)
Chapter 1

Ch. 1

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Angela B Lange

Ch 1 BIO207 Chapter Summaryorganisms contain genetic material that governs an individuals characteristics and that is transferred from parent to progeny Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is the genetic material of all living organisms and some viruses Ribonucleic acid RNA is the genetic material only of certain viruses In prokaryote and eukaryotes the DNA is always doublestranded whereas in viruses the genetic material may be doubleor single stranded DNA or RNA depending on the virus DNA and RNA are macromolecules composed of smaller building blocks called nucleotides Each nucleotide consists of a fivecarbon sugar deoxyribose in DNA ribose in RNA to which are attached a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group In DNA the 4 possible bases are adenine guanine cytosine and thymine in RNA the four possible bases are adenine guanine cytosine and uracil According to Watson and Cricks model the DNA molecule consists of two polynucleotide polymers of nucleotides chains joined by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases Adenine A and Thymine T Guanine G and Cytosine C In a double helixthe three major types of DNA determined by analyzing DNA outside the cell are the right handed A and B DNAs and the left handed ZDNA The common form found in cells is closest in structure to BDNA ADNA exists in cells in certain DNA protein complexes ZDNA may exist in cells but its physiological significance is unknown The genetic material of viruses may be linear or circular double stranded DNA single stranded DNA doublestranded RNA or singlestranded RNA depending on the virus The genomes of some viruses are organized into a single chromosome whereas others have a segmented genome the genetic material of prokaryotes is doublestranded localized into one or a few chromosomes Typically prokaryotic chromosomes are circular but lin
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