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BIO354H5 (1)

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Rosa Da Silva

Reading pg. 2 – 16 CHAPTER ONE (part one): The Cellular Basis of Animal Physiology Physiological research – 1960s Animal physiology is the study of how animals work – Knut Schmidt-Neilsen Animal physiologists study parts of an animal and how the parts work together to allow normal behaviour and response to environment. There are more than a million living species on earth (diversity). There are also commonalities between different species 1. All physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws 2. Physiological processes are regulated and maintain internal conditions with acceptable ranges (homeostasis) 3. Physiological state of an animal is part of its phenotype, which arises as the product of the genetic makeup (genotype) and its interactions with the environment. 4. The genotype is a product of evolutionary change in a group of organisms (population/species) over many generations Physiology: Past and Present A brief history of animal physiology Name Contribution to animal physiology Hippocrates Emphasis on the importance of observation in the treatment of disease Aristotle Emphasis on the relationship between structure and function Claudius Galenus 1 to use systematic experiment to investigate the function of the body. Used dissection and vivisection on non-human primates. Founder of physiology. Ibn al-Nafis 1 to correctly describe the anatomy of the heart, coronary (middle ages) circulation, structure of lungs and pulmonary circulation. + described the relationship between the lungs and the aeration of the blood Jean-Francois Fernal Human health and disease (renaissance) Andreas Vesalius 1 modern anatomy textbook (renaissance) William Harvey Identified the path of blood through the body Contractions of the heart cause the blood flow movement Iatrochemists – body function involved only chemical reactions Iatrophysicists – body function involved only physical processes Hermann Bodily functions were both chemical reactions and physical Boerhaave & process Albrecht von Haller 1 Matthias Schleiden Formulated the cell theory & Theodor Schwann Hemoglobin carries oxygen Liver contains glycogen Nerves regulate blood flow Ductless glands produce internal secretion Claude Bernard Concept of milieu interior (maintain internal environment regardless of the external environment) Walter B. Cannon - homeostasis Per Scholander Comparative physiologist Expedition - Alpha Helix Ladd Prosser Central pattern generators – these types of neurons coordinate rhythmic behaviours Relation between muscle diameter and contraction speed Knut Schmidt- How animals live in harsh environments Nielsen Camels adaptation to desert George Founder of ecological physiology Bartholomew Study of how organisms interact with their environment Peter Hochachka & Founded adaptation biochemistry George Somero Subdisciplines in Physiological Research 3 main ways to categories physiological subdisciplines 1. Biological level of organization 2. Nature of the process that causes physiological variation 3. Ultimate goals of the research The levels of biological organization include: atoms  molecules  cells  tissues  organ  organ systems  organisms  population  communities  ecosystem  biosphere Physiological subdisciplines can be distinguished by the biological level of organization Study phenomena that occur at a cellular Cell and molecular physiologists level (molecular genetics, signal transduction, metabolic biochemistry, membrane biophysics) How cells and tissues interact to carry Systems physiologist out specific responsibilities within the whole animal (function of organs) How an intact animal undertakes a Organismal physiologist specific process or behaviour (example: change in metabolic activity in response to a certain stress) (whole animal) How the physiological properties of an Ecological physiologist animal influence the distribution and (animal and its environment) abundance of a species or population 2 Tries to understand physiological Integrative physiologists processes at a variety of levels of biological organization Reductionism – when a physiologist is interested in one level of organization they usually study the next lower level Emergence – the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Physiological subdisciplines can be distinguished by the process that generates variation Developmental physiologist How structures and functions change as animals grow through the various life stages Environ
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