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Chapter 1

Chemistry Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Judith C Poe

1.1fundamental definitions Properties of Matter • Matter: Anything that has mass and volume • Composition: the types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up • Properties: the characteristics that give each substance its unique identity Physical properties • characteristics that show without going through change or interacting with other substances - ex) hardness, density, electric conductivity Physical change • when substances alters its physical properties but not it's COMPOSITION • H2O (s) ---> H2O (l) • physical change caused by heating can generally be reversed by cooling, Unlike chemical change Chemical properties • characteristics a substance show as it changes into or interacts with others • ex) flammability, reactivity with acids Chemical change (chemical reaction) • when substance is converted into a different substance • ex) 2 H2O ---> 2 H2 + O2 when electric current is passed through water • require other series of chemical reactions to reverse Copper Properties • Physical: malleable/ductile, mixed with zinc to form brass • Chemical : oxidize into blue-green carbonate in moisture, react to nitric/sulfuric acid, blue in NH4(aq) Central Theme • The macroscopic-scale properties and behaviour that we can see are the results of atomic-scale properties and behaviour that we cannot see • We study observable changes to understand unobservable causes Importance of Energy in matter • Energy: ability to do work • Total energy = kinetic(motion) + potential(position) o Lower energy is more stable 1.2 Chemical arts and the origins of modern chemistry Prechemical traditions Alchemy • They believed matter can be altered magically • Technical methods: encouraged experimentation and observations than solely reason • Invented distillation, percolation, and extraction Medical Traditions • Influenced by Alchemy by extracting herbs and roots. • the body is a chemical system, illness is an imbalance that could be restored with treatment/drugs Technological Traditions • For thousands of years pottery making, dying metallurgy extended people experience with materials • Introduced quantitative observations, BUT lacked why or how things worked that way **All three lacked objective experimentation and observations Phlogiston Fiasco and the Impact of Lavoisier Phlogiston Theory • Combustible materials contained phlogiston which are undetectable substances that is released when the material burns • Ex) coal, the more combustible substances have more phlogiston • Phlogiston critics: why is air needed for combustion, why does charcoal stop burning in a closed vessel? • Phlogiston supporters: air attracts phlogiston out of charcoal and the burning stops when the air in the vessel is saturated with phlogiston • When metal burns it forms its calx that weighs more than the metal • Critics: how can the loss of phlogiston cause a gain in mass? • Supporters: phlogiston has negative mass • Antoine Lavoisier 1. Heated Mercury in close environment and Mercury calx and four fifths of original air was remaining o Same mass before and after heating 2. A burning candle was placed, the remaining air was extinguished 3. Decomposed mercury calx in closed environment, by heating it into mercury and gas. T o the total mass equaled to the starting mass of the calx • He called the gas oxygen and calx metal oxide, and the available oxygen combines with the substance as it burns o law of mass conservation • Lavoisier used quantitative and reproducible measurements 1.3 The scientific approach: developing a model Scientific Method • Creative propositions that leads to key discoveries • Observations  Hypothesis  Experiment  Model  Further Experiment Observation • Quantitative are most useful because it is data and can be used to analyze trends • When similar observation is made by many, it’s summarized and becomes a natural law Hypothesis • Can derive from observation or from intuition that explains the observation • Must be testable by experiment • A sound hypothesis need not be correct Experiment • A set of procedural steps that test a hypothesis which often leads to revision of hypothesis • Needs at least 2 variables and quantities that can have more than one value • Control variables measures one variable by keeping the other variables constant • Experimental results MUST be reproducible by others • Skill and creativity play crucial roles Model • Formulating conceptual models or theories based on experiments that test the hypothesis about observations distinguishes scientific thinking from speculation • It simplifies representation of some aspect of nature that is used for prediction, and thus new facts can be refined through further experimentation • Innumerable predictions based on his theory supported validity 1.4 chemical problem solving Units and conversion factors • Conversion Factor: ratio that is used to express a quantity in different units • Dimensional analysis: use of conversion factors • 1 mi = 5280 ft = 1.609 km • mi > km > m > ft • the use of conversion factor is called factor label method or dimensional analysis (units represent physical dimensions) Problem solving approach 1. problem: states all info to solve the problem 2. plan: think about th
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