CLA237H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Tyrant, Palapa, Peisistratos

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18 May 2016

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Chapter 10- A Tale of Two Archaic Cities: Sparta and Athens, 700-480 BC
-Faced problems between elites and the mases, b/w community and neighbouring states. They responded by creating internally
egalitarian male citizen communities but in different ways. Sparta, state-owned serfs called helots worked the land while citizens
followed a life-long program of military training in centralized institutions. Athens: encouraged markets and democratic practice;
monogamous families were core institution.
-Spartan women developed parallel all female groups, Athenians, drew boundaries within the household, headed by the senior male
-Saprta/Athens defined citizenship in ethnic terms. Spartans saw themselves as conqueiring race, ruling over indigenous helots.
Athenians believed they always lived in their own land
-Spartans used helots as dependent labour, Athenians turned to non-Greek chattel slaves imported from overseas and privately
Sparta- The Spartan Mirage
-The Spartan Mirage: a vision of stability, hierarchy and order in which all knew their place.
-Contrast was Athens which they saw as archetype of undisciplin, freedom and disorder
Spartiates, Perioikoi, and Helots
-Sparta destroyed by fire around 1200 BC and Laconia (region around Sparta) declined
-Spartans spoke Dorianaccording to legend: Dorians distinct ppl who invaded southern Greece in 12th century BC soon after the fall
of Troy. So Spartans believed that they descended from conquering Dorians and believed that this descent gave them the right to
dominate the defeated indigenous peoples
-9th Century BC: Dorian Spartans conquered Laconia and reduced its population to dependence. The luckier Laconians were called
Perioikoi meaning “dwellers-around”. They lived in dozens of independent villages, paid tribute to Sparta and served in Spartan army
but didn’t contribute to decisions about when and where Sparta went to war. Less fortunate Laconians became helots, state-owned
-Spartiates: full Spartan citizens divided up the land and helots worked it for them
-Helots were terrorized into obedience
-Helots and perioikoi hated the Spartiates and helots rebelled whenever they got a chance. The Spartiates’ fear of uprisings shaped
every aspect of their society
-B/w 740-720 BC: Sparta overran Messenia, reduced its population to the status of helots. Made Spartiates richer
-Partheniai was a group that was exiled when distributing the spoils of Messinia. Partheniai (born of virgins) planned a coup in 706.
Partheniai were sent to southern Italy and founded Sparta’s only colony there, Taras
Plutarch’s Sparta
-Spartan claim that luxury, wealth, and debt were recent departures from an older quality encouraged martial valor in a state that
was a band of brothers
-Boys grew up in single sex paramilitary institutions
-Girls grew up at home with few men around
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