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Communication, Culture and Technology
Rhonda Mc Ewen

Media in Ancient Empires 10102011 60700 PM From Stone to PapyrusEgyptian civilization showed a shift from monarchy to democracy organization and the basis of communication also showed a changed from stone to pyamidsPapyrus sheets dated from the first dynasty and inscribed dated from the fifth dynastyo 26802540 BC or 27502625 BC Papyrus TechnologyWriting medium was extremely lightMade from plant Cyperus papyrus o Restricted to the Nile delta o Manufactured into writing material near the marshes where it was foundHow was it made o The stems are cut into suitable lengths and the green rind stripped off o Cut into thick strips and laid parallel to each other overlapped on absorbent cloth o Similar layer is laid above and across them and the whole was covered by another cloth o Hammered by a mallet for two hours and the sheets are welded into single mass that was pressed and dried o Fastened to eachother to make rollsBrushes made from Funcus maritimus which was used for writing o Lengths ranged from 6 to 16 incheso Diameters ranged from 116 to 110 of inchesThought Gained LightnessWriting on stone was characterized by straightness or circularity of line rectangularity of form and an upright position whereas writing on papyrus permitted cursive forms suited to rapid writing By escaping from the heavy medium of stone tough gained lightnessThe Organization of ScribesWriting had been restricted to governmental fiscal magical and religious purposesWith the growth of papyrus writing and reading grew as well and became more efficient Scribes and officialso Charged with the collection and administration of revenues rents and tributeso Peasants became members of civil service and prepared accounts o 2000 BC Central administration employed an army scribes literacy was valued as wealth and social rankBecomes restricted as a privilege profession Effects of Writing and EqualityNew ReligionsWriting spread after the democratic revolution Ra worship o Purely political Osiris o The god of the Nile o Good being slain for the salvation of men o The ancestral king and model for his son HorusIsis o The magiciano Codes of lawo Ruled when Osiris was conquering the world Magic and Writing Osiris was served by Troth as vizier sacred scribe and administrator Troth became the inventor of magic writings Osiris became the center of a popular and priestly literature to instruct people in the divine rights and dutiesReligion and magic became independentRedistribution of PowerThe kings devotion created a great wave of faith among people o Ritual made him appoint a proxy to act as propheto The worship of Ra and celestial gods was limited to priests and temples o A cult supplied the needs of living images in statues in the temples Effects of Change InvasionInvaded with the sword and the bow and longrange weapons o Egyptian were dependent on battle axe and dagger
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