Chapter 7

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Department
Communication, Culture and Technology
Course
CCT225H5
Professor
Max Evans
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter7:EnterpriseInfrastructure,Metrics,andBusiness ContinuityPlanning Tuesday,April 05,2011 3:33 PM INTRODUCTION • Service-orientedarchitecture(SOAorSoA)→asoftwarearchitectureperspectivethatfocusesonthe development,use,andreuseofsmallself-containedblocksofcode(calledservices)tomeetmanyor evenalltheapplicationsoftwareneedsofanorganization ○ Newapplicationsbuildonpastsolutionsorganicallyusingestablishedbuildingblocks ○ Allsoftwareisdevelopedfromreusableunitsofcode ○ Highlevel,holisticorganizationalapproachtohowanorganizationviewsandactsonallits softwareneeds • OrganizationwithaSOAphilosophy ○ Lean,agile:takesadvantageofeveryresourceinthemostefficientandeffectiveway ○ Reactquicklyinaproactivewayto perceivedchangesinthemarket,competition,andcustomer demographics,wantsanddesires ○ Respondquicklytoandadapttonewadvancesintechnology ○ Transformitsprocesses,structure,andHRinitiativestomatchachangingand dynamicworkforce Customers • Providemultichannelservicedeliveryoptionsandcustomizableproductsandservices • Plug-and-play:intoanycommunicationschannelwithyourorganizationsuchasfax,theweb,faceto face,phonecalletc. • Experienceshouldbethesameregardlessofcommunicationchannel • Personalizeproductsandservices ○ Pluggingintheirdesiresandwants  Masscustomization End-Users • End-usersofIT:employeeswithintheorganization • Achievedthroughafullyintegratedenterpriseresourceplanning(ERP)systemthatmeetsevery applicationsoftwareandinformationneedofeachandeveryemployee • ERPshouldsupporttransparentinteroperabilityacrossmultiplevendorsandwithinERPmodules providedbythesamevendor • Takeadvantageofmultichannelservicedelivery ○ Abletoaccesscomputingandinformationresourcesregardlessofwheretheyare(mobile computing) ○ RegardlessofITinhand,employeesshouldenjoyaccesstoafullrangeofapplicationsoftware servicesandinformation SoftwareDevelopment • Orgscan chooseamongnumeroussoftwaredevelopmentmethodologiesthatfocusontheproduction andreuseofblocksofcodeto speedtheprocessofsoftwaredevelopment ○ Rapidapplicationdevelopment(RAD) ○ Extremeprogramming(XP) ○ Agilemethodology InformationNeeds • Mostvitallyimportantorganizationalresource--information • Pplthroughoutyourorgneedaccessto info,BI, and knowledgethatsupportstheirdecisionmaking efforts • SOAapproachto inforequiresthat: Infobeinastandardformatno matterwhereitexists • SOAapproachto inforequiresthat: ○ Infobeinastandardformatno matterwhereitexists ○ Strictandrigorousintegritycontrolmechanismsareinplacetoensurethecompleteness, accuracy,and validityoftheinfo ○ Noduplicateinfoexistsindisparatesilosanywhereinyourorganization ○ Anykindfoinfofromanysource(evenexternal)canbequicklyandeasilycoupledwithotherinfo Hardware Requirements • Orgshouldbefreetochoosedifftechnologiesanddifftechnologyplatformsandintegratethem seamlessly(plugandplay) • Powerfulstorageareanetworksshouldhavethecapacitytostoreallyourinfoneeds • Youshouldnothaveto care wherewithinthesenetworksinfoisstored;youraccesstoinfoshouldbe simpleandeasy • Telecommunicationsplatformshouldbesafeandsecure,andatthesametime,enableyoutoaccessa network,eitherwiredorwireless,usingthesamestepsorprocedures HARDWAREAND SOFTWAREINFRASTRUCTURE • Infrastructure→thestructurebeneathastructure ○ Diffplayersofstructure,whichprovidesupportorservices EnterpriseResourcePlanning(ERP)Revisited • ERPmarketisat thetop oftheITspendinglist • Vendorsarecontinuouslyupdatingtheirproductsandaddingnewtechnologybasedfeatures • Majorvendorqualitiesforproductselectionandimplementation: ○ Longtermvision ○ Commitmenttoserviceandsupport ○ Specialtyfeatures ○ Experience ○ FinancialstrengthforR&D TheEvolutionofERP systems • ERPsystemsreplaceislandsofinfoandprocesses,withasingle,packagedsoftwaresolutionthat integratesallthetraditionalenterprisemanagementfunctionssuchasfinancials,HR,andmanufacturing andlogistics • EarlystageofERP (1970s) system:materialsrequirementplanning(MRP) ○ Focus:internalproduction,planning,calculatingtimerequirementscomponents,procurement, andmaterialsplanning ○ Developedtoprovidetherightmaterialsattherighttime ○ Nofocusonserviceorientation ○ Forthefirsttime,managementwasabletoanswerthequestion"when?" • Early1980s: manufacturingresourcesplanningorMRPII ○ Evolved ○ Closedtheloopwiththeaccountingandfinancialmanagementsystems ○ Crossedboundariesofproductionfunctionalityandstartedservingasdecisionsupportsystems (DSS)andexecutiveinformationsystems(EIS-digitaldashboardsinthemodernday) ○ Companycouldhaveanintegratedbusinesssystemthatprovidedvisibilityfortherequirementsof materialandcapacity ○ Goodinfo→gooddecisions:integratedITsystemsprovidecompetitiveadvantage ○ Late1980s to early1990s: timetomarket:increasinglyshort • Beg1990s: enterpriseresourceplanning(ERP) ○ Encompassesalltheresourceplanningfortheenterpriseincludingproductdesign,warehousing, materialplanning,capacityplanning,andcommunicationsystems ○ Helpcompaniesbecomeleanerandmoreagiletotechnologybyintegratingthebasictransaction programsforalldepts,allowingquickaccesstotimelyinfo • EvolvedintoERPII SCM ○ SCM ○ CRM ○ DWBI ○ e-bus ERPanda SOA • 2primarygoals: 1. ProvideinteroperabilitywithinanERPvendorandformodulesamongdifferentERPvendors 2. HidetheunderlyingITinfrastructureofinfoandhardwarefromend-usersandcustomers • Interoperability→thecapabilityoftwoormorecomputingcomponentstoshareinformationandother resources,eveniftheyaremadebydifferentmanufacturers • Sustainableinteroperability→canreplacesoftwaremoduleswithintheERPsuiteyouchoose • Physicalstructureandlocationofinfoshouldnotbeofconcerntoyou as an enduser,norshouldthe physicalhardwareinfrastructurematter ERPAdvantagesandDisadvantages • Advantages ○ Centralizedatabase ○ Reliableinfoaccess ○ Avoiddataandoperationsredundancy ○ Deliveryandcycletimereduction ○ Costreduction ○ Easyadaptability ○ Improvedscalability ○ Globalreach ○ e-bussupport • Disadvantages ○ Timeconsuming ○ Expensive ○ Lackof conformityofmodules ○ Vendordependence ○ Toomanyfeatures,toomuchcomplexity ○ Questionablescalabilityandglobalreach ○ NotenoughextendedERPcapability SupportingNetworkInfrastructures • FundamentalunderlyinginfrastructureforanyITenvironment:network ○ 2+comps sharinginfo,software,peripheraldevices,andprocessingpower DecentralizedInfrastructure • Decentralizedinfrastructure→littleornosharingofITand otherresourcessuchas information ○ Arisesfromusersordeptsdevelopingtheirownsystemsorapplications,withoutanycentral control • Givesusersthelibertytodevelopapplicationsthatmeettheirneedsandmaintaincontroloverthe applicationstheydevelop • Preventsusersfromeasilycombiningprocessingpowerorevencomparinginfobetweenvarious informationsystems • Encouragesdataduplication,frequentlyleadingtoinconsistencies CentralizedInfrastructure • Centralizedinfrastructure→sharinginformationsystemsinonecentralareaorononecentral mainframe • Greatadvantage:allowsahighdegreeorcontrol,makingiteasyto: 1. Maintainstandardsofhardware,software,proceduresandoperations 2. Controlaccesstoinformation 1. Maintainstandardsofhardware,software,proceduresandoperations 2. Controlaccesstoinformation • Maindisadvantage:inflexibility ○ Builtsothatit can beusedby everyone,butthatdoesnotmeanthatthe systemisoptimalfor everyone ○ Diffdeptandremotesiteshavediffinfoneeds DistributedInfrastructure • Distributedinfrastructure→distributinginformationandprocessingpowerofITsystemsviaanetwork • Alllocationscanshareinfoandapplications • Majorbenefit:processingactivitycanbeallocatedtothelocation(s)whereitcanmostefficientlybe done • Toimproveperformanceandreducenetworktraffic,adistributedinfrastructurewilloftenstorethe sameapplicationand/orinfoin2+locations • Morecomplexthancentralizedanddecentralized ○ Distributedinfrastructuremustbeabletodeterminethelocationofspecificapplicationsandinfo ○ Mustbemore sophisticatedindeterminingtheoptimalwaytorequesttheapplicationandinfo ○ Orderinwhichthesystemprocessesarequestcanmakeasigdiffintheamountof data transmittedoverthenetwork Client/ServerInfrastructure(client/servernetwork) • Client/serverinfrastructure→hasoneormorecomputersthatare serversthatprovideservicesto othercomputers,calledclients • Formofdistributedinfrastru
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