Learning outcomes: explain the four primary traits that determine the value of information, describe a database, a database management system, and the relational database model. Identify the business advantage of a relational database: explain the business benefits of a data-driven website, explain why organizations would want to integrate databases. Information attributes: levels, formats, and granular types of information. Levels at widest (base) and granularities at the tip. Information timeliness: depends on the situation, real-time information. Immediate, up-to-date information: real-time system, provides real-time information in response to requests. Inability to accurately track customers: difficulty identifying valuable customers. Inability to identify selling opportunities: marketing to nonexistent customers, difficulty tracking revenue. Inability to build strong customer relationships: benefits of good information, high quality information can significantly improve chances of making good decisions, good decisions can directly impact an organization"s bottom line. Information governance: storing information in a relational database.