Lecture 3 and Chapter 2.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Earth Science
Lindsay Schoenbohm

Lecture 3 and Chapter 2 On the Move- Plate Tectonics -20 different plates - density of water = 1 Continental crust thinner, under mountain ranges you find thickest crust Lithosphere = cold Mantle = stiff and frozen solid Earth’s Crust • Continental Crust • crust: ~ 35 km thick • relatively low density (lighter… 2.65 g/cm ) 3 • Oceanic Crust • crust: ~10 km thick • higher density (heavier… 3.2 g/cm ) 3 Earth’s interior • Lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) ~ 100-250 km thick - Relatively rigid • Asthenosphere (upper mantle) - around 200 km thick - Relative ductile (easily deformed) The Plate Tectonic Model • Lithosphere is thin, cool and hard • Asthenosphere is weak and hot • Lithosphere broken into large fragments called plates • Plates “float” on the asthenosphere • Plates move around and interact with each other Isostasy • plates “float” at an elevation depending on thickness and density What happens at the edges? • Plates boundaries can be: • DIVERGENT moving away from each other • CONVERGENT moving towards each other • TRANSFORM moving past each other Alfred Wegner’s Observations (~1915) • Actually a meteorologist not a geologist • Idea of continental drift • Largely ignored at first He observed: 1. Fit of the continents-
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