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Chapter 2

ENV310H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: United Nations Environment Programme, Endangered Species Act Of 1973, Intergovernmental Conference

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Barbara Murck

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Chapter 2: International Sustainable Development Events, Agreements, and Commitments
“ustaiailit’s tielie
o The first use of sustainability came from Racheal Carso’s book Silent Spring, as well as some
other catastrophes such as the 1962 London Fog and fires on Cuyahoga River in Ohio
o First global conference for sustainability was the 1968 Intergovernmental Conference for
Rational Use and Conservation of the Biosphere
Was an international call for research for global environment problems?
First time government were joining together to begin to understand environment
o I 97’s Prez Niso reated the Natioal Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) through the
Environmental Protection Agency
By mandating environmental assessments, the administration acknowledged the
connection between development and environmental degradation, and the role of
governments in managing development programs
o Early efforts to tie economic development to environmental resource conservation in the United
Kingdom likewise emerged in 1971 through the establishment of the International Institute for
Environment and Development (IIED).
Was the governmental initiative, the IIED sought to find solutions for countries that
wanted to make economic progress without decimating the resources provided by the
natural environment
o The Stockholm Conference, (the Conference on the Human Environment) marked the first
attempt by the United Nations to bring countries together to discuss international environmental
issues and their relationship to growth.
MAIN result of the Stockholm Conference was the establishment of several national
environmental protection agencies and the United Nations Environment Programme
Through INSTITUTIONALIZING environmental protection, it forces sovereign countries to
focuses on protecting their environment
it specifically informed the sustainability discussion in one distinct way: the conference
primarily focused on the environmentdevelopment relationship.
Also helped in focusing the environment issues faced in developing countries
o In 1973, a concern for the other species on our planet was institutionalized through the United
“tates’ Edagered “peies At E“A.
mandated that threatened and endangered plants and animals, as well as their habitats,
not be harmed or significantly modified by development. In response to the threat of
biodiversity loss, the United States took an uncharacteristically bold approach to
preserving critically endangered species.
o In 1980 the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) was released by the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
In the document, the recognition of habitat destruction found in the Endangered
Species Act was further examined and the root causes of the destruction were identified
as poverty, population pressure, social inequity, and trading regimes
The World Conservation Strategy also served as a blueprint for the Brundtland
Coissio’s laguage i Our Coo Future. The WC“ defied oseratio as the
management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the
needs and aspirations of future geeratios
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