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ENV100Y5 (131)
Chapter 2

ENV100 Chapter 2.docx

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Barbara Murck

Chapter 2: Matter, Energy & the Physical Environment Matter Matter is all the material in the universe that has a mass and occupies space, whether solid, liquid or gaseous. Matter may be transformed from one state to another but cannot be created or destroyed Element: is a fundamental type of matter, a chemical substance with a given set of properties Water A polar molecule with a partial negative charge due to oxygen’s increased electronegativity that attracts electrons more than the hydrogen atom leaving the molecule with a slight positive dipole and a slight negative dipole Hydrogen bonding between water molecules Water remains a liquid from 0 to 100 degrees, which allows biological processes to occur at a wide range of environmental conditions Water exhibits strong cohesion which allows the transport of chemicals, such as nutrients and waster, in plants and animals and in the physical environment Water has a high heat capacity, which means that water can absorb large amount of heat with a minimal change in temperature. This helps to stabilize the system against change Water molecules in ice and farther apart than in liquid water making ice less dense that water and allowing it to float on water. Fresh water reaches a maximum density at 4 C Water molecules bond well with other polar molecules Water is transparent to light Photosynthesis 6CO 2 6H O 2 Energy --> C H O6+12O 6 2 Cellular Respiration C6H 12+66O --2 6CO + 6H2O + En2rgy Geothermal Energy Mainly powered by radioactivity from naturally occurring isotopes deep inside the Earth Chemosynthesis Occurs in hydrothermal vents that are so deep underwater that no light can reach them. Thus, the bacteria use the chemical-bond energy in hydrogen sulfide to transform inorganic carbon into organic CO + 6H O + 3H S  C H O + 3H SO 2 2 2 6 12 6 2 4 Layers of the Earth 1. Core  at the planet’s center is dense core consisting mostly of iron, solid in the inner core and molten in the outer core 2. Mantle  thick layer of rock surrounding the core  a part of the upper mantle is called the asthenosphere and contains softer rock, which is close to its melting temperature and actually molten in some areas  the harder rock above the asthenosphere is the lithosphere which contains the harder rock  the lithosphere includes the uppermost mantle and the crust 3. Crust  the tin, brittle, low density layer of rock that covers the Earth’s surface and on which we live The intense heat from the inside rises from the core to mantle to crust and eventually dissipates at the surface In regions where the crust is very thin or the heat flow is high is good for harnessing geothermal energy The heat from the inner layers of the Earth also drives convection currents in the mantle. It pushes the mantle rock up
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