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ENV100Y5 (125)
Chapter 6

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Monika Havelka

Chapter 6- Human Population The Human Population at 7 Billion The Human Population is Growing Nearly as fast as ever • Population growth in developing countries led to global population toward 7 billion and beyond • The global human population has grown exponentially; even if growth rate remains steady, population size will increase by greater increments with each successive generation Demography is the study of human populations D • Demographers study:  Population size  Density and distribution  Age structure  Sex ratio  Birth, death, immigration, emigration rates • Demography- Study of factors determining size and structure of population • Two ways to look at growth rate:  Per capita rate= (birth rate + immigration)- (mortality rate + emigration)/population size o Negative= population shrinking o Zero= population is not changing in size o Positive= population is growing  Absolute rate= size of population at a given time/size of population at an earlier time o <1= population shrinking o 1= population is not changing in size o <1= population is growing • Age Distribution  Age distribution reflects future growth potential  Many individuals in young age groups results in high reproduction and rapid population growth  Doubling time= 70/growth rate %  E.g. if the population is growing at 5%/year, it will take 70/5 or almost 14 years to double • Limits to human population growth  Mathus’ Basic Theory- argued that the pressure of population growth on the availability of resources could lead to disaster  Malthus was wrong on two important points: 1. Resource availability has been greatly increased as a result of technological advances 2. People have managed to make decisions that give them some measure of control over population
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