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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Monika Havelka

Chapter 12: Freshwater Systems and Water Resources • Roughly 97.5% of Earth’s water esides • Too salty • Only 2.5% is considered fresh water • As water moves: o Re-distributes heat o Erodes mountain areas o Builds river delta o Maintains organisms, ecosystems o Shapes civilizations • Surface freshwater o Rivers and streams o Springs o Lakes and ponds o Wetlands Rivers and streams wind through landscapes: • Water from rain, snowmelt, or springs runs downhill and converges where land dips lowest, forming streams, creeks or brooks • These watercourses merge into rivers whose water eventually reaches the ocean • Tributary: small river flowing into larger one • Watershed/ Drainage basin/ Catchment: the area of land drained by a river and all its tributaries o Catchments are separated from one another by divides (slides 19 and 20) • The force of water rounding a river’s bend gradually eats away at the outer shore, eroding soil from the bank • Sediment is deposited along the inside of the bend ( water current is weak) o Erosion is carrying sediment to the ocean • Bend may become such an extreme loop (called an oxbow) that water erodes a shortcut from one end of the loop to the other • Oxbow lake: isolated u-shaped water body • Floodplain: the region of land over which a river has historically wandered, and which is periodically inundated • Riparian: relating to a river or the area along a river – agriculture • Algae and detritus support many types of invertebrates: cayfish, water beetles • Insects as diverse as dragonflies, mayflies, mosquitoes develop as larvae in streams • Fish consume aquatic insects, and birds such as kingfishers, herons, ospreys dine on fish • Many amphibians spend their larval stages in streams and some live forever Wetlands include marshes, swamps and bogs: • Wetland: a system that combines elements of fresh water and dry land. • Marsh: a type of wetland, shallow water allows plants to grow above the water’s surface • Swamps: a type of wetland consisting of shallow water rich with vegattation, occurring in a forested area • Bogs: are ponds thoroughly covered with thick floating mats of vegation Lakes and ponds are ecologically diverse systems: • Are bodies of open standing water • Their physical conditions and the types of life within them vary with depth and the distance from shore • Littoral zone: the region ringing the edge of a water body o Shallow enough aquatic plants grow from the mud o Plants reach above the water’s surface o Nutrients and productive plant growth o Rich in invertebrates – larvae, snails, crayfish :- birds, turtles, amphibians feed • Benthic zone: the bottom layer of water body o Many invertebrates live in the mud on the bottom, feeding detritus or preying on one another • Limnetic zone: in a water body, the layer of open water through which sunlight penetrates • Photic zone: in the ocean or a freshwater body, the well-lit top layer of water where photosynthesis occurs • Profundal zone: in a water body, the volume of open water that sunlight does not reach • Aphoti
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