Textbook Notes (363,079)
Canada (158,178)
Environment (154)
ENV100Y5 (125)
Chapter 2


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Monika Kwiatkowski

September 16 2013 Chapter 2 Matter Energy and the Physical EnvironmentMatterMatter Any material that has mass and occupies spaceLaw of conservation of matter Matter may be transformed from one type of substance into others but it cannot be created or destroyed Chemical Building BlocksElements A fundamental type of matter a chemical substance with a given set of properties which cannot be broken down into substances with other propertiesAtoms The smallest component of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element which consists ofProtons positively charged particlesNeutronsNo electric chargeElectrons negatively charged particlesAtomic Number atoms of each element have defined number of protonsIsotopes One of several forms of an element having differing numbers of neutrons in the nucleus of its atomsSome isotopes are radioactive which decay into lighter radioisotopes until they become stable isotopes and the rater of decay is determined by its halflife the amount of time it takes for half the atoms to give off radiation and decayIons An electrically charged atom or combination of atomsCations Ions that form when an atom loses electrons and thus carry a positive chargeAnions Ions that form when an atom gains electrons and thus carry a negative charge Molecules and CompoundsMolecules A combination of two or more atomsCompound A molecule whose atoms are composed of two or more elementsBond A chemicalphysical connection between two or more atoms an electrical force linking two atoms togetherCovalent Bonds when atoms in a molecule share electrons sometimes unequallyIonic Bonds oppositely charged ions formed when an electron transfers from one atom to anotherSolution A chemical mixture Water MoleculeOxygen atom in water molecule attracts electrons more strongly than the two hydrogen atoms resulting in polar molecule in which oxygen has negative chargehydrogen has positive chargeHydrogen Bond Oxygen atom of one water molecule is weakly attracted to hydrogen atoms of anotherProperties of Water molecule that support lifeLiquid over a wide range of temperatureWater based processes occur in a variety of conditionsStrong cohesionWater molecules are polar universal solventFacilitates bonding with other chemicalsFacilitates the transport of chemicalsHigh heat capacityStabilizes systems against change
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