5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Monika Kwiatkowski

Chapter 5 Species Interactions and Community EcologySpecies Interactions Categories of species interactions CompetitionWhen multiple organisms seek the same limited resourceSubtle and indirect involving the consequences of one organisms ability to matchoutdo others in procuring resourcesTakes place amongMembers of the same species intraspecific competition population level phenomenonMembers of two or more different species interspecific competition o Competitive exclusion one species is very effective competitor and may exclude another species from resource use entirelyo Species coexistence neither competing species fully excludes the other they may life side by side at a certain ratio of population sizesFundamental niche The full niche of a species may exploit resourcesRealized niche The portion of the fundamental niche that is fully realized used by a speciesResource Partitioning The process by which species adapt to competition by evolving to use slightly different resources or to use their shares resources in different ways thus minimizing interference with one another o Character displacement Occurs when competing species evolve physical characteristics that reflect their reliance on the portion of the resource they useNegative effect on other participants because each takes resources the others could have used PredationPredation Process by which individuals of one species predator hunt capture kill and consumer individuals of another species preyCauses cycles in population sizes 1 Increase in population size of prey creates more food for predators which may survive and reproduce more effectively as a result 2 As predator population rises additional predation drives down population of prey 3 Fewer prey causes some predators to starve so that predator population declines 4 Prey population rises again starting cycle againHas evolutionary ramifications individual predators that are more adept at capturing prey will likely live longer healthier lives and be better able to provide for their offspring than will less adept individualsPositivenegative effect on other participants ParasitismParasitism Relationship in which one organism parasite depends on another the host for nourishment or some other benefit while doing the host no harmDoes not result in organisms immediate death but it contributes to hosts eventual death
More Less

Related notes for ENV100Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.