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Monika Kwiatkowski

Chapter 9 Conservation of Species and Habitats Value of Biodiversity Biodiversity Provides goods and servicesProvides food shelter fuelPurifies air and water detoxifies wastesGenerates and renews soil fertilityPollinates plants controls pests and diseaseMaintains genetic resourcesProvides culture and aesthetic benefitsAllows us to adapt to change Organisms provide drugs and medicinesPlants in response to herbivory they produce cyanide caffeine cocaine mescaline nicotine atropine strychnine morphine quinine codeine digitalis and many more EcoTourismIncentive to preserve natural areas and reduce impacts on the landscape and on native speciesParticularly beneficial in developing countriesThus preserving biodiversity is economically important Deep ecology concepts that nature has intrinsic rights and valueDo other organisms have intrinsic valueDo other organisms have rights including an inherent right to existDo we have ethical obligations toward other species Biodiversity helps maintain ecosystem functionsBiodiversity increases the stability and resilience of communities and ecosystemsDecreased biodiversity reduces natural systems ability to function and provide servicesMeasuring BiodiversitySpecies DiversityAbundance number of individualsRichness number of different speciesEvenness distribution of abundance over species These three measures can be used to describe species richness o Alpha Diversityof species in local area of homogeneous habitat o Gama Diversityof species in large geographic area that comprises many habitats o Beta Diversity turnover in species from one local area to anothergamaalphaIf the same species are found in different habitats over a wide area then Gama Alpha and Beta1
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