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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws (broadest definition) Forensic science owes origins to individuals who developed the principles and techniques needed to identify or compare physical evidence - Bertillon (devised the first scientific system of personal identification, developed the science of anthropometry, the father of criminal identification) - Galton (undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a methodology of classifying them for filing) - Lattes (discovered that blood can be grouped into different categories (A, B,AB and O), devised a relatively simple procedure for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain) - Goddard (established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner) - Osborn (development of the fundamental principles of document examination was responsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by courts, book: Questioned Document) - Locard (exchange principle: whenever two objects come into contact with one another, there is exchange of materials between them) The technical support provided by crime laboratories can be assigned to five basic services: - The physical science unit uses the principle of chemistry, physics, and geology to identify and compare physical evidence - The biology unit uses knowledge of biological sciences to investigate blood samples, body fluids, hair, and fiber samples - The firearms unit investigates discharged bulle
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