GGR 208.docx

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Nicole Laliberte

GGR 208: Readings Population Geography- An Introduction  Population at the start of 17 century was 500 million  Due to improvement in sanitation, medication and nutrition, world’s population is rapidly growing  By 1900, population was approx. 2 billion  2009 approx. 6.8 billion (last billion in just 14 years)  Most growth occurred in developing world- Africa, Asia, South and Central America.  Future growth also expected to occur in developing countries, fuelled by high birth rates and reduced death rates and young populations  To view population processes such as fertility, mortality and population movement, you have to understand issues in today’s society such as conflict, recourse use, environmental degradation and relations b/w countries and their people  Poor life expectancy and high death rates often reflect inadequate health care, failure of gov’t to provide necessities and poor education  Countries also tied by population movement such as war, refugee movement.  Major refugee-producing countries by mid-2008 were Sudan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia (UN- 906 mill refugees in 2007)  Population underlies many of the issues facing the world today (fertility, mortality and movement- interconnected) What is population Geography and why study it?  Study of human population with respect to size, composition, spatial distribution and changes in the population that occur over time  Populations altered by 3 basic processes- Fertility (birth), mortality (deaths), and migration  Population mobility is inherently spatial, connecting places both local and international. What is the geographic perspective?  Geography offers a framework through which to view population issues.  Economic systems will determine fertility behaviour, and the mortality of populations and env crises related to pollution, deforestation, and water scarcity  Population geography initially dealt with the geographic character of places, content to describe the location of a population and its characteristics and to explain spatial configuration of these numbers Chapter 1: World population  High birth rates were offset by high death rates from famine, war and epidemics in early times  14 century, bubonic plague reduced population of Europe and china by 1/3 to ½  1600’s population started to grow more rapidly- life expectancy increased with improvement in commerce, food production and security/nutrition.  1800- 1billion  Industrial revolution- Europe population doubled from 1800 to 1900. North America population multiplied by 12  1960-1998 population from 3 to 6 million Regional growth  Divide world into 2 regions; Developed and developing  Most of world’s population growth in developing world. Over 80% of world population, 98% of world’s population growth is occurring here  121 million children born developing and 13.3 born in developed countries (2008)  China currently most populous but slow growth rate, India second largest but fast growth rate  Growth rate in developed countries in very slow Urban growth  1975 only 33% of world’s population lived in urban areas  2009, Approx. 50% of population in urban areas  2030- 61% or world population to be in urban areas  Megacities (10mill + ppl) have increased Demographic Transition:  Demographic transition theory: prior to transition, birth and death rates are high, and largely cancel each other’s effect, meaning that populations grow slowly  Development and modernization= Low death rates, high fertility corresponding to the period of rapid population growth  End of demographic transition birth and death rates are again comparable but at lower level, population growth stabilizes  Based on Europe and assumed other countries would progress similarly (criticism) Future population scenarios: winners, losers  Fertility rates to decline in developing nations and worldwide, diminishing risk of population growth  New problem: population deficit and aging population  Population growth only a problem in specific regions (india and Pakistan)  Population still growing but growth rate decreasing  Trends o Developed nations: slow growth, population decline, long life expectancy, and low infant mortality rates, controlled immigration o Developing: Rapid growth, high fertility, low life expectancy, high infant mortality rates  Aging of world’s population becoming more common Immigration:  2005 approx 191 million migrants (120 million for developed world)  Immigrations policies designed to attract brightest immigrants  Countries will low fertility and aging workforce rely on immigration Chapter 2: Population Data What is a population?  Used to define a group of people, population of the world, country, city etc  Boundary outlines those included and excluded from a population  Primary and secondary data  Qualitative and quantitative data o Qualitative: nonnumeric info obtained through case studies, interview, focus groups etc o Quantitative: Numerical and includes counts, statistics Data sources  Geographers interested in population structure, composition, transportation, population- e
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