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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gabrielle Sauter

Chapter 3: The South in a changing world order Forming States and nations In Global South - borders appear to be static but have moved a lot and can be controversial -world map represents a view of internationally recognized states that command sovereignty over clearly defined territories. -way of ordering and viewing the world is hard-wired in to many global institutions and oractices today. Soverigns tates are represented at the United Nations, which treats them as formal equals (with exceptions) -crossing between nations often requires passports -when conflict arises and and a state’s sovereignty or territory is contested, the fundamental ideas of the system are often defended by all of those involved. -For example, whilst the deployment of UK,US and other military personnel in southern Afghanistan in 2006 was justified as re-establishing the Afghan govts rule in these provinces, those opposing this saw it as a foreign violation of national sovereignty, and Taliban figthers as legitimate reps of the Afghan people -given its persistence through both peace and war, it is important to remember that global network of national states is a relatively recent creation Colonialism and the emergence of the modern state -in 1500, the idea of European political dominance over the majority of the South would have seemed th fanciful. While Spain and Portugal rapidly established empires in Latin America over the early 16 century, destroying indigenous empires such as that of the Aztecs through a combination of military technology and the unintended introduction of smallpox. -European traders initially came to Africa and Asia as relatively weak outsiders rather than potential conquerors. -If there was a ‘global’ political system at this time, it was Islamic: the Muslim world extended from present-day Morocco in the northwest to Indonesia in the southeast. -The peace of Westphalia, which ended Europe’s Thirty Years War, is often credited with being the beginning of a modern political order, as it established the idea of territorial sovereignty -this meant that individual states were to be recognized as the ultimate source of authority within their own borders, and to have the right to conduct diplomatic relations with other states beyond. -Europe began to establish banks and economic dynamism, spurred on by growing international trade and innovations in banking. The need to raise and collect taxes led to the practice different times of Governmentality -Governmentality: ways in which a govt and the population it governs interact -THUS by the 18 century, Europes politics was therefore beginning to look ‘modern’; states recognized each other through international treaties, there were emerging links between terriroty, rule and national identity, and improving or developing states’ populations had become an important part of statecraft alongside diplomacy -the growth of European state power was, in part, supported by its economic links with the Global South. -in the New World, extraction of precious metals, the slave trade, and plantation agriculture were important early mechanisms to transfer wealth to Europe -by late 19th century, increasing rivalry between European powers was beign expressed in attempts to annex territory. -the conference of Berlin was an attempt to rationalize this process within Africa and led to the rapid division of the continent -Japan and USA were also making claims to the pacific - Colonization in the South was very different for different colonizers -Britain’s primary interest in its colonies was to maintain a political order and administration that would favor its commercial interest -France was explicitly political project of assimilation in which indigenous societies were to be transformed by taking on French values. -but within all countries, colonialism introduced elements of modern statecraft: it redrew (or it established anew) firm territorial boundaries, created new political ordering and administrative systems within these borders, and sought to underpin these by a combination of force and persuasion -relatively small colonial elites controlled colonized populations (ex. 1 European to every 15,000 inhabitants) -colonies justified with reasoning that it was their moral obligation -IN SUMMARY: thus while colonialism introduced state institutions that were entirely modern, the idea that Southern people constituted nations that deserved self-govt and their own sovereignty was actively denied Decolonization and its aftermath in the South -with colonial rule often being experienced in the Global south as a violent and exploitative force, it is no surprise that various forms of resistance to this power – from tax avoidance to armed uprisings- had taken place throughout this period. -Central and South America saw a range of successful movements to gain independence from Spain in th the early 19 century. But for much of the rest of the Global South, decolonization came after the end of WWII -for many former colonies, independence was, however, a rather contradictory process: it reasserted local control over the state, but at the same time it often reproduced a framework of imposed colonial instituions and arbitrary colonial borders -Nation building, a process that had usually been suppressed or undermined under colonialism, was therefore an essential task of new generation of Southern political leaders if their rule was to have greater legitimacy than the European govts. they replaced -Direct involvement in the anti-colonial struggle often gave these leaders a degree of popular support, but along with this came great expectations that their govts would also be able to transform day-to-day lving conditions for their people. -not easy. Attempts at change needed firm control of national resources, and
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