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ADAMS Ch 5 notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gabrielle Sauter

Ch. 5 notes Market Environmentalism -market environmentalism: ideas present the market as the most important mechanism for mediating between ppl, and regulating their interaction with the govt. -involve a political agenda of rolling back the state, deregulating markets, and extending market relations into society and its relations with the environment -those in favor argue: Markets are more flexible than the political process. They respond more quickly to change, and usually generate better info because participants have direct incentives to obtain good info about the effects of their actions. Markets also create incentives that guide-decision making that has an impact on the environment -market prices rise as resources become scarce, and logically people will innovate and to find cheaper sources or ways of using resources more efficiently (including using less of the resource and finding alternatives) -Open-access resources are liable to overexploitation whereas private sector of resources are managed efficiently and conserved -thus market-orientated policy in the third world has translated to privatization of communally held land. -tradable pollution permits economic -should not be interfered with govt. -people just argue form this side that the only problem is there needs to be responsibility of economic growth in social and environment terms -dev. and environment. Increases in dev result in some good and some bad environmental impacts -good = access to clean water and better sanitation -bad = increased waste and production of CO 2 -indicators show deterioration, improvement, and then deterioration again. Also increases in income inequalities grow fast initially but decline later (environmental Kuznets Curve) -looking into technology to avoid deterioration -pollution declines in wealthy industrialized nations are unreliable because they just moved the production and waste offshore to another country -debates on sustainability of enviro with economic processes and favoritism of benefits to richer partners Corporations and Sustainability -a key element in the market environmentalism has been ‘greening’: actions taken by firms that have a substantive or symbolic commitment to ecological protection -brand value and competition for markets -social responsibility called for by shareholders -use of media by Greenpeace and the sorts to protest companies that were not very nice to the environment -Biz response to the challenge of sustainable dev. can be thought of as having passed through 3 phases: 1. pollution prevention 2. self-regulation 3. sustainability -critics critique this strategy for being to capitalistic and not caring enough about the environment. All about the money Ecological Modernization -ecological modernization is a reformist and regulatory approach, which recognizes the ecological dangers posed by unfettered markets, but believes in the self-corrective potential of capitalist modernization -innovation, greater competitiveness, and technological change are the key elements -it holds that modernization is fully compatible with ecological sustainability -following Rio and Agenda 21 , MSD (Mainstream sustainable dev) became broadly ecologically modernist in its approach. 3 key things that make ecological modernization distinct 1. thinks of environmental deterioration as a challenge to be fixed by technology and economic reform rather than inevitable 2. emphasizes the transformation of modern institutions to achieve environmental reform 3. takes a position distinct from Marxist and postmodernist analysis -ecological modernization involves working towards improved and more rational planning, management, regulation, and utilization of human use of environment -RATIONALITY A KEY CONCEPT for ecological modernization -in response to critiques mentioned above this emerged -critics here ask how much of this is actually caring or just playing dress up by countries and corporations to hide the problems -this strategy best understood as an extension of market enviro -this strategy really is made for the Industrialized Global north -countries of the global periphery, lacking industrial might and technology, must first transform into sorts like the global North and in the process risk/ face a process of prolonged enviro degradation associated with aggressive industrialization -critics also say pursuit of sustainability through ecological modernization in wealthy industrialized countries in the Global North could have the effect of displacing excessive resources depletion, production of wastes, and pollution to countries of the poor periphery Environmental Populism -Politically, MSD draws heavily on ideas about power of civil society, deliberative democracy and political modernization. Ecological Modernization places a premium on partnerships between state and citizen and business: an informed society, business that takes corporate social responsibility seriously, a green economy, and slim efficient governance combining to create a sustainable economy and environment. The shift in govt. and business practice implied by ecological modernization is associated with the shift in publ
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