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Week 7 reading.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Grace Barakat

Week 7 reading: Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital Structural characteristics -Socially excluded or truncated network: limited to a small number of membership groups, and a small number of people within those groups. Residents with these networks include newcomers, unemployed people, women with controlling partners, and some isolated elderly people. Additional examples included single parents without local families, careers, a refugee, and a woman who immigrated on marriage - consists of people similar to oneself -homogenous network: consists of a relatively small number of membership groups, but there may be extensive contacts within those groups. It is predominantly made up of a local extended family, plus a small number of local friends and neighbors. These networks are dense, its members know each other. Examples include single parents. -Traditional network: made up family , neighbors, ex. Workmates, old school friends, and friends from social clubs and sports clubs. The structure is tight knot. The individual will have spent most of their lives in the immediate area. Examples are predominantly elderly people, and a small number of young who locally, and had attended social clubs -most closely associated with a traditional working class community and culture -Heterogeneous network: an open network consisting of a relatively large number of membership groups. It includes dissimilar people in terms of age, ethnicity, interests, employment status or occupation, and place of residence. Generally the networks are loose, but in some cases – such as a person involved in interconnected voluntary organization – are not. Friendly and family are less likely to know each other than in the other models. Principal examples are people active in voluntary organizations. Some are different in some way from neighbors, such as not born locally -Network of solidarity: consists of a wide range of membership groups, made up of similar and dissimilar people. Network structure is both loose and dense. Networks may share any characteristics of both the Traditional and heterogeneous models, that is, strong local contacts of family and or local friends and neighbors on the one hand, plus participation in formal and informal organizations on the other. Residents have a wide range of positive reference groups -wide networks and participation in organizations -relocating network: associates with areas outside the neighborhood -there are a wide array of influences interacting in complex relationships affecting health -neighborhood characteristics influence network patterns and forms of social capital created -both individual’s experiences and neighborhood characteristics impact on social exclusion, dimensions of which include a reduced capacity to access social capital, and poorer health chances -social networks differentiated by structure and cultural characteristics have implications for psycho social pathways involved in health effects -different patterns of social networks enabled access to different as well as similar forms of social capital and other coping resources -deprivation can be both a cause of hopelessness and spur to social action. Social consciousness influence social capital -neighborhood factors include the area’s history, work opportunities, local resources, and opportunities for participation played a role in developing relationships of trust; norms of cooperation and reciprocity; patterns of mutual aid and information exchange, and perceptions of safety or fear of crime. -poverty on individual’s health could be compounded by the lack of social interaction and low store of some forms of social capital -stigmatized reputation of an area contributed to isolating residents -mixed network patterns most effectively promote personal growth without sacrificing a sense of community -the more varied the network the greater the range of resources available, and the greater the potential benefits for health -participation in organizations can have many positive effects, including enhanced self-esteem, a sense of achievement, and perceptions of control -visionary outlook may be health promoting while hopelessness has been linked to increased risk of heart disease -another critical element for social capital is the norms in the structures -there is much evidence to confirm that even if networks can ameliorate the harsher health effects of poverty and deprivation, they are no substitute for a more equitable distribution of resources nationally -middle class people generally have wider, looser and more resourceful social networks; working class people have fewe
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