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Chapter

GGR208 Readings.docx


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR208H5
Professor
Unknown

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GGR208 Readings
Pages 1-7
-Most population growth occurring in developing worlds
-Population processes: fertility, mortality, and population movement
-Societies around the world are characterized by or shaped by their population
processes and characteristics. You can use these to describe population processes,
data and composition.
-Characteristics=mortality and fertility processes: infant mortality rate
(IMR)Measures the number of deaths to infants less than one year of age
per one thousand births
-Life expectancy: measures the number of years an individual is expected to
live (could be due to poor health care, failure of government to prove basic
necessities)
-Population movement: local residential changes as housing needs change;
domestic and international migration
-Many countries restrict international entry to those who qualify
under specific programs. Typically selecting the young and those with
skills. Most promote the entry of individuals who are able to invest in
the host country or embody the education or skills that are demanded
by developed countries
-Refugees: persons who are outside their country of nationality and
are unable to return owing to fear of persecution for reason of race,
religion, nationality or association in a social or political group.
-The importance of considering fertility, mortality and population movement is
realizing the multiple interconnections with population
-Population geography: the study of the human population with respect to size,
composition and spatial distribution, and changes in the population that occur over
time.
-Populations are altered by three basic processes:
-Fertility (births)
-Mortality (deaths)
-Migration (movement of people across space)
-Population geographers: seek to understand the society around them, the
structures of a population, and how it changes through births, deaths and
migrations
-Population research draws on many disciplines and research traditions
-Geographers contribute regularly to population studies and their methods and
findings and cross-fertilize other disciplinary perspectives.
-Demography: is the statistical analysis of population with its roots in analysis of
mortality and fertility
-Population studies is used to describe other approaches to looking at population
issues
-Population geography: is the geographical study of population with an emphasis on
location and spatial processes (relatively new study)

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-Population mobility is inherently spatial, connecting places both local and
international.
-Analyze economic, social, and political effects associated with international
movements
-Populations are governed by various natural laws (we are all born and must die)
-Government is interested in the structures of populations too like age
-From this the governments can direct program delivery to ensure the needs
of their constituents are met.
-Understanding the composition of populations and its distribution is important and
needed for planning purposes as well as the private and public sectors
-Study of populations is interdisciplinary in scope
-Economic systems will determine fertility behavior and mortality of populations
and environmental crises related to pollution etc.
-Population geography first rose to prominence with Glenn T. Trewartha in 1953.
He envisioned population geography as a separate subdivision
-It initially dealt with the geographic character of places, content to describe the
location of population and its characteristics
-Wilbur Zelinsky’s book helped further cement the creation and reflected population
geography’s close ties to formal demography.
-Logical positivism: combining empirical study with mathematics and scientific
inquiry. Also used qualitative and quantitative data with the help of computers
-Qualitative approaches offer detailed insights, and geographic information systems
(GIS) and spatial analytical techniques
-Economic and cultural geography provide insights into fertility choices which may
reflect the economic needs of the family, including trade-off between children as
labor or pension plans
-6 Research themes in population geography:
-Internal migration and residential mobility
-International migration and transnationalism
-Immigrant assimilation and adjustment and the emergence of ethnic
enclaves
-Regional demographic variation
-Social theory and population processes
-Public policy
-Research themes include the relationship between migration and economic cycles
and restructuring, the effects of demographic cycles (population aging and baby
boom cohort) on migration, life course perspectives on population mobility and
ethnographic approaches to migration
Chapter 1
-Much of humanity’s history, the world population was small and the population
growth was slow. Aided by food security, the shift from hunter-gatherer societies to
agricultural-based societies allowed the population to grow.

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-High death rates from famine, war, and epidemics
-By 1600, the world’s population was 500 million, not much larger than the
population of US
-Middle 1600s the population started to grow with improvements in commerce,
food production and security and nutrition. Reached 1 billion by 1800
-Population of developing countries grew slow but held the bulk of the worlds
population
-Advances in medicine and sanitation increased survival and life expectancies
-Population continues to grow and is projected to reach 7 billion soon
-Demographers refer to the amount of time it would take a population to double in
size assuming the growth rate remained constant as doubling time
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