GGR208H5 Chapter Notes -Population Geography, Infant Mortality, Demographic Transition

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Published on 11 Dec 2013
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GGR 208: Readings
Population Geography- An Introduction
Population at the start of 17th century was 500 million
Due to improvement in sanitation, medication and nutrition, world’s population is rapidly
growing
By 1900, population was approx. 2 billion
2009 approx. 6.8 billion (last billion in just 14 years)
Most growth occurred in developing world- Africa, Asia, South and Central America.
Future growth also expected to occur in developing countries, fuelled by high birth rates and
reduced death rates and young populations
To view population processes such as fertility, mortality and population movement, you have to
understand issues in today’s society such as conflict, recourse use, environmental degradation
and relations b/w countries and their people
Poor life expectancy and high death rates often reflect inadequate health care, failure of gov’t to
provide necessities and poor education
Countries also tied by population movement such as war, refugee movement.
Major refugee-producing countries by mid-2008 were Sudan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia
(UN- 906 mill refugees in 2007)
Population underlies many of the issues facing the world today (fertility, mortality and
movement- interconnected)
What is population Geography and why study it?
Study of human population with respect to size, composition, spatial distribution and changes in
the population that occur over time
Populations altered by 3 basic processes- Fertility (birth), mortality (deaths), and migration
Population mobility is inherently spatial, connecting places both local and international.
What is the geographic perspective?
Geography offers a framework through which to view population issues.
Economic systems will determine fertility behaviour, and the mortality of populations and env
crises related to pollution, deforestation, and water scarcity
Population geography initially dealt with the geographic character of places, content to describe
the location of a population and its characteristics and to explain spatial configuration of these
numbers
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Chapter 1: World population
High birth rates were offset by high death rates from famine, war and epidemics in early times
14th century, bubonic plague reduced population of Europe and china by 1/3 to ½
1600’s population started to grow more rapidly- life expectancy increased with improvement in
commerce, food production and security/nutrition.
1800- 1billion
Industrial revolution- Europe population doubled from 1800 to 1900. North America population
multiplied by 12
1960-1998 population from 3 to 6 million
Regional growth
Divide world into 2 regions; Developed and developing
Most of world’s population growth in developing world. Over 80% of world population, 98% of
world’s population growth is occurring here
121 million children born developing and 13.3 born in developed countries (2008)
China currently most populous but slow growth rate, India second largest but fast growth rate
Growth rate in developed countries in very slow
Urban growth
1975 only 33% of world’s population lived in urban areas
2009, Approx. 50% of population in urban areas
2030- 61% or world population to be in urban areas
Megacities (10mill + ppl) have increased
Demographic Transition:
Demographic transition theory: prior to transition, birth and death rates are high, and largely
cancel each other’s effect, meaning that populations grow slowly
Development and modernization= Low death rates, high fertility corresponding to the period of
rapid population growth
End of demographic transition birth and death rates are again comparable but at lower level,
population growth stabilizes
Based on Europe and assumed other countries would progress similarly (criticism)
Future population scenarios: winners, losers
Fertility rates to decline in developing nations and worldwide, diminishing risk of population
growth
New problem: population deficit and aging population
Population growth only a problem in specific regions (india and Pakistan)
Population still growing but growth rate decreasing
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Trends
o Developed nations: slow growth, population decline, long life expectancy, and low
infant mortality rates, controlled immigration
o Developing: Rapid growth, high fertility, low life expectancy, high infant mortality rates
Aging of world’s population becoming more common
Immigration:
2005 approx 191 million migrants (120 million for developed world)
Immigrations policies designed to attract brightest immigrants
Countries will low fertility and aging workforce rely on immigration
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Document Summary

Population at the start of 17th century was 500 million. Due to improvement in sanitation, medication and nutrition, world"s population is rapidly growing. 6. 8 billion (last billion in just 14 years) Most growth occurred in developing world- africa, asia, south and central america. Future growth also expected to occur in developing countries, fuelled by high birth rates and reduced death rates and young populations. To view population processes such as fertility, mortality and population movement, you have to understand issues in today"s society such as conflict, recourse use, environmental degradation and relations b/w countries and their people. Poor life expectancy and high death rates often reflect inadequate health care, failure of gov"t to provide necessities and poor education. Countries also tied by population movement such as war, refugee movement. Major refugee-producing countries by mid-2008 were sudan, iraq, afghanistan, and somalia (un- 906 mill refugees in 2007)

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