Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTM (8,000)
Geography (100)
Chapter 4

GGR361H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Planning Permission, Urban Renewal, Garden City Movement


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR361H5
Professor
Alan Walks
Chapter
4

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Early history
People arrive in Canada atleast 12000 years ago
Early sites were small and temporary, usually near sources of food and
water
When Europeans came across atlantic to claim Canada, it was already well
populated
By 18th century establishing towns became keystone of colonial policy:
control the land through new settlements
Town planning arrives
National immigration brought millions of new comers to Canada pressuring
the governments to respond to the stresses (poor sanitation, risk of fire,
intense crowding, etc) created in cities.
Street railroads encouraged suburban and strip development radiating out
from the core
Other than building roads, loval gov provided very little services
After 1870s many municipalities began programs to ensure clean water and
remove waste from streets, investing in massive infrastructure projects to
help with these issues
Municipalities then eventually gained more responsibilities and thus set the
context in which planning would become an integral part of their activities
By 1910s gov leaders saw planning as a tool they could use to achieve their
economic, political and social aims
Planning schemes for Canadian cities began to appear as Thomas adams (a
veteran of british garden city planning) who toured Canada writing planning
legislation, promoting town planning, and developing model suburbs
Zoning: a tool for protecting property values
Became popular by 1920s as a way of controlling land use and increasing
the predictability of development
Postwar reconstruction and the revival of planning
Postwar period saw rapid expansion in community planning activities.
National mood of postwar optimism for a better future, faith in science and
trust in government services
Don mills was built: suburb ranch style homes, looping streets,
neighbourhood units, open space with walkways. It displayed privacy,
family, amenity growth and progress. It displayed low-density development,
hierarchy of streets, shopping retail malls and strips, lots of green space.
Don mills was award winning and developers from coast to coast copied the
elements of this plan.
Don mills was a suburban model which builders recognized the profit
potential and popularity of this model.
Government provided loans and grants to encourage cities to clear slums.
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First slum clearance project began in 1948 at regeant park. New multi-family
housing was constructed, open space, high rise apartments
Research done to show the positive effects of slum clearance and new
planning reform. (less fires, less disease was a result)
But now all slums that were cleared were being reformed due to lack of
funds.
Increase in automobile ownership and traffic jams convinced highway
engineers that better routes were needed from suburbs to downtown area.
federal and provincial governments therefore invested lots of money into
highways
Participation era
Planning process provided room for public involvement
Citizens to participate in decision making
Planning issues became public battles as residents fought to protect their
neighbourhoods threatened by urban renewal, development projects,
highway alignments.
Extent of public actions overwhelmed politicians and led to revisions to
planning acts and local planning practices to provide for public participation
in the planning process
Citizens granted new rights
Neighbourhood planning offices were created, and citizens began to learn
about planning
The planning process
Planning operates within many contexts: legal(laws and regulations),
political(heritage conservation), economic(private property, home
ownership), social(cultural values related to privacy and family),
organizational, technical(new tools become available).
The provinces set the general rules for planning and zoning and
municipalities prepare and implement the plans and regulations.
Plan preparation involves range of background studies documenting
demographic trends, land use patterns, traffic analysis, housing needs,
commercial capacity.
Citizens of the community are allowed to participate and share responsibility
in developing a plan
Once plans are adopted they are under review to ensure that development
comply with the plan and by laws
Council then decides whether to approve or reject plan
Urban outcomes
Opportunity to purchase inexpensive land on the urban periphery
Provide parking for easy journey
Parking for 2 cars in driveway
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