Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTM (8,000)
Geography (100)
Chapter 16

GGR361H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Planned Unit Development, Building Envelope, Relative Density


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR361H5
Professor
Alan Walks
Chapter
16

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Chapter 16 Land Use Regulation Tools for Plan Implementation
The Main Tasks of Plan Implementation
The ultimate aim of plan-makers is to establish the conditions that will attain the goals of the plan
While making a community plan concludes at a particular point in time, plan implementation is a
continuous process
Planning tools act as an interface between the policies of the plan and the aims of those who make
decisions that transform the physical environment
Considering this array of participants involved in land use decisions, two basic needs, or dimensions, of
plan implementation emerge. The need to:
Guide development on private land. This, is turn, breaks down into two sub-dimensions (a)
presently developed areas and (b) vacant or undeveloped areas
Coordinate public development efforts This applies especially to capital investments
Around these two dimensions have developed the best-known and most refined planning tools, such
as zoning or distritig, as it used to e alled, ad developmental control or site-plan control; these
are used to guide development on presently developed private land
Subdivision control, another traditional tool, is used to guide development on large parcels of vacant
land
These familiar tools are designed for the direct guidance of the individual, group, business or public
agency that wishes to make decisions about the use of land in the community
There are also tools that work to influence development decisions indirectly
Certain implementation approaches have emerged to obtain public input and use alternative
organizational arrangements for municipal planning operations
The community plan is intended to encompass all community land use decisions, present and future, in
order to achieve some envisioned built environment
Planning Tools for Already Developed Lands
Planning tools that are typically used in the developed portion of a community include zoning,
development control (site-plan control); and redevelopment plans
The developed part of a community is the portion that, in general, comprises relatively small parcels of
land that are already built upon or could be developed
Zoning: Origins and Nature
Zoning grew out of the early observation about city development that similar uses tend to congregate
in areas separate from other uses
Further, when congregated in their distinctive areas, the land used uses and activities industry,
commerce, residences seem to perform their respective functions more effectively than when
intermingled
German town planners in the latter half of the 19th century employed these observations to devise
ways of organizing the growth of industrial cities to ensure efficiency for the factories and amenable
workers housing
The German approach to differentiate the regulations according to the needs of the uses located in
their respective districts
The practice became known as districting and later, as zoning especially in North America
Districting principles lent themselves to consideration of the physical design of communities to achieve
the arrangements and densities of land uses a community might prefer
Districting principles lent themselves to consideration of the physical design of communities to achieve
the arrangements and densities of land uses a community might prefer
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Zoning can be applied simultaneously to individual properties or large areas, which may account for its
longevity among planning tools
When zoning was established, it was a major departure in the exercise of statutory powers by
municipalities
Previously, municipalities had used powers for enforcing safety, health, and structural standards on an
individual property basis
In North America, the first comprehensive zoning bylaw was enacted by the City of New York in 1916
The first such Canadian zoning bylaw was enacted in 1924 for Kitchener, Ontario and was formulated
by planners Thomas Adams and Horace Seymour
Zoning practice developed along the same general lines in Canada and the United States, although
there are significant differences between the two countries that affect zoning The basic difference
lies in the fact that the U.S constitution spells out personal property rights, whereas the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedom does not
The usual concern over zoning practice in the United States is whether the bylaw involves a taking
away of property rights granted to property owners
The concern in Canada is more general that is, whether the bylaw is discriminatory in pursuing the
public interest
Thus, zoning bylaws in Canada can have much broader scope than those in the US
Substantive Focus
Zoning has a very precise focus. It provides a set of standards regarding:
The use to which parcel of land may be put, and
The size, type, and placement of buildings on that parcel
An accompanying map or zoning plan, specifies the boundaries of each zone and thus, the properties
affected by the different district regulations
The zoning bylaw may also regulate the density of population from district to district by specifying the
number of dwelling units allowed per building and/or number of the number of individuals that may
occupy a dwelling unit
Land Use Types and Districts
Three basic land use categories are usually identified in zoning bylaws: residential, commercial and
industrial
In each of these categories, there may be a series of zones, depending upon the nature of the
activities, the type of building, the density of development or the lot size
For each land use zone, it is common practice to specify the uses that are permitted to locate there
Building Height, Bulk and Placement
Height controls often existed in cities long before comprehensive zoning was accepted
Controls regulating how close buildings could be placed to the street (now called the set-back) were
also long-lived concerns in cities
Zoning bylaws gathered together these various concerns over the built environment and refined and
articulated them in conjunction with the aims for land use districts to further the community
environment
In a typical zoning bylaw, one will find that each land use zone includes specifications for the maximum
height of buildings and the proportion of the parcel of land that may be built upon
From these two dimensions height and building areas, the potential bulk of a building may be
ascertained
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The exact space on the parcel combined with the allowed bulk of building defines what is called the
building envelope
In each zone there is a distinctive building envelope within which property owners may build
Density
Most zoning bylaws where multiple-family dwellings are common now include specific density
regulations
Density specifications in zoning bylaws may take one of two forms, or a combination of both:
The first and most common, is to specify the maximum number of dwelling units per unit of
land areas (hectare)
The second method of specifying residential density is according to the amount of floor area
included in a project site (net density) or in the neighbourhood (gross density)
Other Concerns of Zoning PHACAS
1. Parking/Loading
The main objective is to minimize possible congestion in the public streets in the vicinity of a
property that might be used more intensively, such as for multiple residences or commercial
purposes
In residential areas, at least one parking space per dwelling unit is usually needed
In commercial and manufacturing areas, the standard are usually set in terms of the gross floor
area (or sometimes by the # of employees) on the assumption of providing space for those who
drive their cars to work
2. Signs
Signs tend to be discouraged altogether in residential areas; in commercial areas the signs may
e regulated to redue sig opetitio ad produe a partiular harater for the area
3. Accessory Buildings
Most land uses require, in addition to the principal structure, structures for parking or storage
A garage on the same lot as a single-family house is an accessory use, as is a storage shed on a
commercial property and a security guards building at a manufacturing plant
4. Home Occupations
It was estimated that one-third of Toroto’s delligs in 1993 housed some form of business
activity or home occupation
This stiulated the ity to aed its zoig yla to allo a ide rage of e hoe
occupations
5. Aesthetics
The difficulty of formulating aesthetic regulations on a comprehensive basis in zoning bylaws
has led to several new variations
Within the jurisdiction given by development-control procedures to municipalities, it is possible
to request modifications to facades and exterior materials used on buildings
6. Cultural Diversity
New immigrant populations with their different cultural perspectives have frequently
encountered difficulty in three facets of the built environment: places of worship, ethnic
business enclaves, and housing types
Recent Zoning Perspectives
Zoning is a simplified view of city development that envisions activities located in discrete districts,
housed in distinctive types of structures
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