Chapter29.docx

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19 Apr 2012
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Ch. 29: Cold War & Post War Recovery 1945-70
-after WW2, people were wounded, homeless, hungry, unemployed, and psychologically
damaged by their loss; Warsaw almost completely destroyed; Polish people aided by the United
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration to rebuild their city; Warsaw reconstructed
to its original form; Europe’s collective struggle was urban reconstruction and economic
survival
The Origins of the Cold War
-rebuilding was not an easy; not enough money after the war (duh!); political disorganization
everywhere; US and Soviet Union= two richest and strongest nations in the world; disagreed in
economic reconstruction and future plans for Europe; Soviet saw through US’s hidden agenda
of promoting American capital in the world market; US recognized that SU wanted to recover
via outright control of eastern Europe
-“hot” (WW2) vs. cold war (between US and SU after the war; lacked military violence);
communist vs. capitalist democracies; iron curtain (east vs. west)
-US wanted to give financial aid to Germany to help them rebuild; Soviet wanted to take from
Germany to help them rebuild (is this what they fought about? Ask professor); US, Britain, and
France vs. SU (why was everyone against communism again? and how is it different form
fascism?)
-Germany was split into two new states in 1949: The Federal Republic of German (West
Germany; US; democratic) vs. The German Democratic Republic (East Germany; SU; single-
party state)
-Soviet-dominated governments: Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Czechoslovakia;
Stalin feared liberal governments and capitalist markets near their borders= threat to Soviet
interests; elections not allowed; annexation of neighbouring territories
-everyone against Soviet now; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was born in order to
provide mutual protection and goal of containing the SU
-atomic bomb and thermonuclear weapons (arms race) greatly affected Cold War politics (the
US and Soviet Union always trying to get ahead of the other); whoever had bombs had military
advantage; the UN replaced the League of Nations and was used to harness nuclear power for
peaceful uses
- nationalist movements during the war; former colonies saw the war as a catalyst for
independence; the Cold War forced colonies to choose which side they wanted to belong in;
hence, decolonization= continued dependence
-The Soviet only communicated with Communist regimes until Stalin’s death; “friendship
treaties” with Asia, Africa, and Latin America as part of Cold War strategies; encouraged
national liberations fragmentations and poverty among centralized governments
(take more notes here)
Postwar Economic Recovery in Europe, Japan, and the Soviet Union
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