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Mairi Cowan

Intro  Era one: emergence and expansion of regional societies—regional connections o Food production and population increased; people formed regional states; groups of villages, towns with single governments o Expanded to form transregional empires—large expanses with various lands and cultures under a single government o Connections were established with land and sea trade routes, as well as with belief systems/ religions  Era two: transregional conflicts and religious connections (200-1200 ce) o Religions were created by expansive religions o Christianity spread from Palestine to Europe, west asia and north Africa until challenged by islam, a new faith that soon linked much of Africa and Eurasia religiously, culturally and commercially o Buddhism started in india and separated into branches and spread across asia until challenged by Hinduism and Confucianism  Era three: cross-cultural conflicts and commercial connections (1000- 1650) o Formation of vast new political and commercial empires; both land and sea based  Era four: shift from regional to global connections (1500-1800) o Wealth and power shifted from east to west  Era five: revolution, industry, ideology and empire (1750-1914) o Revolutionary forces reshaped the west and eventually much of the world; political, industrial  Era six: global upheavals and global integration, 1900-present o By the 20 th century, western nations had connected much of their world under their economic and political sway, while competing for resources and power CHAPTER 1: THE EMERGENCE OF HUMAN SOCIETIES TO 3000 BCE  Hominid—a term scientists apply to humans and their two-legged prehumen predecessors  The preceding ages, encompassing all human existence before the emergence of writing are often called the prehistoric era, despite the probability that people who lived then kept track of their history by passing on oral accounts  Hominids first engaged in Africa at least 5 million years ago, and for millions of years most likely survived by eating wild plants  No historical records survive from before 5 thousand years ago  Most of what we know from the prehistoric era is from the work of archaeologists and anthropologists  Modern researchers have characterized this activity—the first indication of conscious cultural behaviour—as the onset of the old stone age or Paleolithic period (the earliest and longest stage of cultural development—2,000,000-10,000 bce o In this time, hominids improved social and communicative skills, learned to hunt in groups that pursued prey, and migrated to diverse regions Hominids and Cultural adaptation  Beginning in the Paleolithic period, hominids diverged from other groups by developing cultural adaptation o Cultural adaptation—using their intellectual and social skills to adjust to their surrounding and improve their chances for survival; also transmitted their knowledge of survival to their young o Also learned to use fire; learned to use all parts of animal for their own survival (fur for clothes, meat for food, bones for tools) o Another result of cultural adaptation was that separate societies eventually developed their own cultures  Cultures—unique combinations of customs, beliefs, and practices that distinguished societies from each other; included languages, arts, rituals, institutions and technologies Foraging, family, and gender  Early hominids were scavengers, eating mainly wild nuts and berries, living in small nomadic groups and feeding occasionally on carcasses of dead animals and then moving on after exhausting the area’s readily accessible food resources  Foragers—those who subsist by gathering wild plant foods and hunting wild animals  Sources suggest that Paleolithic peoples traveled in foraging bands, mobile communities of perhaps 30-60 people connected by kinship  As members of the same kinship group (an extended family comprising grandparents, parents, siblings and other relatives) they were also connected by familial obligations and affections  Hominids live in family groups that raise children; families develop flexible gender roles  Foraging societies have simple structures based on collaboration  Women were essential for long-term survival in that they had the children so they also did the safer tasks; males were expendable, so they performed the more dangerous tasks  The absence of rank in foraging bands did not mean everyone was equal but rather that the adults in the group could collaborate in making decisions, procuring food, etc. Ice Age Migrations and Homo Sapiens  The Paleolithic period corresponded roughly with what geologists call the Pleistocene epoch, also called the great ice age o Great ice age—an immense stretch of time marked by frigid glacial stages when masses called glaciers spread across much of the globe o 2,000,000-8000 BCE o Lasted tens of thousands of years, alternating with shorter intervals of relative warmth o This forced migration of many mammals include hominid bands, some of which left Africa and traveled to asia, possibly following herds of wild animals; later groups made their way to Europe  A new species emerged 150,000 to 200,000 years ago called homo sapiens o The term means “wise human” o Designates the species that include all modern people and distinguishes us from other types of hominids that no longer exist  Humans have larger skulls housing larger brains than earlier hominid species  Neanderthals also had large brains; their remains were first discovered in 1856 in Germany’s Neander Valley o Existed 200,000 to 30,000 years ago  Most experts now think homo sapiens first appeared only in Africa, migrating later to Eurasia and thence to the rest of the world  Humans developed enhanced reasoning and communicating skills  As hunting skills improved, human populations and migrations increased  Human groups then migrated to Australia and the Americas  By 50,000 bce, according to archeological evidence, people made their way from southeast asia to Australia, and impressive feat that meant travelling in boats on the open seas  Others apparently migrated from northeast asia to the Americas by 12,000 bce, during the last ice age when the huge glaciers absorbed so much water that sea levels dropped hundreds of feat o This exposed a broad land bridge that connected Siberia with Alaska o From Alaska the migrants spread throughout the Americas, where they found pristine lands sill teeming with mammoths, bears and deer  By the end of the Paleolithic period, in almost every region of the globe fit for human habitation, there were human societies Physical and Cultural Diversity  Differing climates produced modest physical differences o Ie. People who lived in northern regions eventually developed lighter skin, which was better able to produce nutrients from the scarcer sunlight and sometimes hairier bodies to protect them from the cold o Darker skin in hotter regions protected from the sun’s rays  Race—divides human beings into categories based on external characteristics  The concept of race relies on relatively insignificant distinctions  Humans adapt to diverse conditions and develop diverse cultures  The study of world history thus focuses mainly on the development of diverse cultures, their similarities and differences, and on the connections among them Paleolithic cultural and spiritual perspectives  Developed new forms of expression  Paintings, carvings and burial sites surviving from the stone age display the arts and rituals of early peoples, doubtless seeking to understand and influence forces shaping their lives  Using charred sticks, brushes made of ferns, furs, or feathers, and natural pigments from the soil mixed with animal fats, preshistoric artists created live sized paintings of large animals in motion  Unknown whether it was for decorating or if they were engaged in magic or religious rituals that sought to capture or command the spirits of the animals portrayed  Archaeological evidence suggests that people have buried their dead for at least 100,000 years, often accompanied by tools, clothing and other ornaments Intercultural Connections  Although separate societies created distinctive cultures, they typically did not develop in isolation from each other  Scholars believe most foraging groups developed contacts with neighboring societies, thus creating intercultural connections  This involved agreements to divide and share land and other resources, forming families, exchanging goods and information  Early connections foreshadowed more elaborate arrangements, including formal trade and diplomatic relations, which emerged later as societies grew larger  B.c the Paleolithic period covered most of the duration of human existence, behaviour patterns evolving in that era influenced later societies  Connections among cultures have been central to the human experience THE ORIGINS AND IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE  By the end of the last ice age, about 10,000 BCE, people in some regions, prompted perhaps by environmental changes, were turning from nomadic foraging toward a more settled lifestyle  Especially in west asia, as the warming climate expanded the area covered by grasses and grains, people developed new techniques to gather and process them for food  Archaeologists who first found evidence of such tools dating from this era called it the NEW STONE AGE  More importantly, people were beginning to grow their own food  New stone age, or NEOLIATHIC period, lasted roughly from 10,000 to 3000 bce  People not only developed better tools but also domesticated plants and animals, cultivated crops, herded livestock, and established permanents settlements  This transition from foraging to farming, ones of history’s most momentous developments, has been called the Neolithic or agricultural revolution; took several thousand years  In Neolithic times, people start raising their own food  Farming and herding begin in west asia by 8000 bce The origins of farming and herding  Based on archaeological evidence, including the remains of early farm settlements and tools, scholars have surmised that farming first began in West Asia o Began b/w 9000 and 8000 bce in a crescent shaped region o Aka the Fertile Crescent o Today encompasses Israel, Syria, and Iraq o Specific dates and events are not certain  Scholars believe that by 12,000 bce as the last ice age ended, a warming climate and melting glaciers had left much of this region covered with forests and grasslands  Today is mostly desert  Over the next few millennia, some people there began subsisting mainly by harvesting wild wheat and barley grains that grew in abundance in the grasslands  As climate changes increase wild grains, some people settle in one place  West Asian settlers had little need to limit their families or belongings o With less need to move and more food to feed their offspring, these settlers could sustain larger families, build more permanent shelters, and accumulate a wider variety of tools, clothes, and other belongings o Their numbers grew as their mobility declined  Settlements and food surplus foster population growth  West Asian hunters developed an equally momentous food production process o Discovered that certain game animals (wild sheep and goats) could be captures and kept alive in captivity rather than killed in the hunt o Provided as a standby food source o Eventually learned that these animals were domesticable: they could be bred and adopted by people to meet human needs— people could raise their own herds and produce their own meat o Other uses of animals were found, ie. Fleeces and hides for blankets and clothes, manure to fertilize, farming, transport, travel, food (ie. Milk) Agricultural Innovation and Expansion  Egypt, india and Europe developed new crops, food and drinks o China-7000 bce  Rice, millet, pigs, chickens o West Asia-9000 bce  Wheat, barely, figs lentils, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle o Sudan-8000 bce  Sorghum, cattle o Mexico/Mesoamerica-7000-4000 bce  Pumpkins, chili peppers, corn (maize), beans, squash o New Guinea-7000 bce  Taro o Peru-8000-3500 bce  Potatoes, sweet potatoes, llamas, alpacas  Cut and burn process- cut and burn down forests since ashes from burned vegetation served as superb fertilizer Foragers, Hunter-Farmers, and Pastoral Nomads  Not all humans took up agriculture  Since raising crops and herds typically required more time and harder work than foraging and often left people at the mercy of the weather and dependent on a few food sources, societies were unlikely to turn to farming o Unless compelled to do so by population growth or diminished food supply  Even then, this was only possible where climate and terrain made farming feasible, where plants and animals were suitable for domestication, and where people had developed tools and techniques for harvesting, breeding, pasturing, and storing  The transition from foresting to farming was a long process and farming was not for everyone  Eurasia and north America mainly hunted and fished since it was too cold to grow crops  The Americas adopted farming and not herding (few domesticable animals)  Pastoral nomads-mainly in central asia—people who raise livestock for subsistence and move occasionally with their herds in search of fresh grazing grounds  Societies without large domesticated animals combine farming and hunting  Pastoral nomads in semiarid lands practice herding but not farming  Pastoral nomads connect and conflicted with settled farming societies  In the long run, since agriculture could support far more people than nomadic herding or foraging, settled societies eventually gained huge advantages in population, weapons, possessions, and power—enabling them to defeat, attract, or displace almost all nomadic people o The future belonged mainly to societies based on farming Agriculture Society: Village, Family, and Land  Both farmers and pastoral nomads centered their societies on families and divided their duties by gender; many differences developed between them o One key difference was permanence of place  Nomads moved from place to place  Farmers typically settled in one location; almost everywhere they dwelt in FARMING VILLAGES—small settlements of home sin a compact cluster, surrounded by lands on which the villagers raised food o Another key difference was size  Agricultural communities frequently grew much larger than nomadic groups, whose numbers were limited by the need for mobility  The larger size required a higher degree of structure than normal among nomads  Possession of land, scarcely a concern for nomads, became essential in many agricultural societies, where people’s livelihood depended largely on the land o Farmers also diverged from nomads in terms of gender roles and status o In foraging bands, the role of women was crucial, since they supplied the plant food on which the group relied and often had to manage the group while the men were off hunting o Family size further affected gender roles; in nomadic societies where mobility was essential, large families could be a burden, so parents frequently kept families small  This freed women to assume many duties besides child- raising o In farming societies, women bear and raise many children o While many agricultural societies were patriarchal (dominated by men as heads of households and community leaders) and others were matriarchal (run by women serving similar roles) The impact of agriculture  Initially, agricultures impact was not always advantageous  Early farmers and herders typically had to work much harder than gatherers and hunters  Neolithic farmers appears to have been smaller, and probably less healthy than nomadic foragers  Acquired diseases from living in close proximity to animals  They settled in one place, they accumulated garbage which fouled their water and attracted disease-bearing rodents  Societies based on agriculture had a crucial advantage: they could produce surplus food; this provided: o A backup food supply, helping to ensure survival o Allowed to support larger families, allowing their communities to grow to settlements of hundreds or thousands of people  Agriculture supported and sustained the development of large, complex, regional societies which would increasingly dominate human history The Emergence of Complex Societies Towns cities, occupations and religion  By 7000 bce, as food supplies increased, some west Asian settlements were starting to grow quite large  Although towns and cities depended on farming, their most influential inhabitants where those who did not farm  Although towns and cities depended on farming their most influential inhabitants were those who did not farm  With their food supplied by farmers, these people could specialize I other occupations  These excavations also reflect the emergence of organized religion  Early peoples probably engaged in rituals, summoning spirits to help secure food and ensure fertility  Other excavations add to the impression that rulers exercised great power  Fortification and weapons found at early cities suggest that they must have had numerous laborers States and Civilizations  LECTURE 2 A) karl marx b)hegel c)Obama d)Oscar wilde E)cicero Ian Mortimer-the social mandate of historians—every engagement with the evidence relating to a past evi** Early humanity and prehistory  Are not synonymous; do relate Early humanity  Hominids-can be a human or any of our bipedal ancestors  Probably about 20-30 different species  2.3 million BP: homo habillis  200,00-150,000 BP: homo sapiens  possibly the beginning of our species  prehistory= before history?  Written records are often thought to divide the prehistoric from the historic eras  Prehistoric does not imply insignificance  Prehistory through art- rock shelters in bhimbetka, india; paintings from 30,000 BP Prehistory through modern peoples  San people—are bush people, not village people; don’t own cattle or goats; own nothing o There’s a social taboo against greed and hoarding; emphasis on sharing with these people Prehistory through writing  A historic record of a prehistoric people  Eg.thrench Jesuits writing about Algonquin and iroqouian peoples in the 17 century Canada Prehistory through physical remains  More likely to find arrow heads than baskets; softer things are harder to preserve Prehistory through genetics  The genographic project; helps explains how people changed through time Prehistoric periods  Three age system—of stone, bronze and iron  Paleolithic o Old stone age; about 2,000,000 bce to about 10,000 bce o Bce=before common era o Human societies lived in nomadic groups; followed food supply o Got food through hunting in the wild o Hunter-gatherer; want to remain to gatherer-hunting societies since most food was found through gathering o Changed environment to meet their needs o Most significant event was when the last ice age came to an end, bringing a new ageneolithic  Neolithic o New stone age o Neolithic revolution or agricultural revolution o People started the deliberate cultivation of crops and domestication of animals o Started about 10,000 bce; probablys started by accident as people became increasingly dependent on growing food o Retreat of climates brought about retreat of animals, so there was a new pressure to find food for humans o Started independently in different parts of the world Was it really a revolution?  People could now settle in one place and focus on economic, religious, and other activities  Populations grew rapidly  About 10,000 years ago, human population of the world was about 6 million  5,000 years ago about 50 million  by 2,500, 250 million?  Development of technology, ie. Jugs  Textiles made from flax(linen) cotton, wool (from sheep and alpaca) to make clothes  Revolution? Maybe not—didn’t happen suddenly o Not all parts of the world went through it, or not completely (some raised livestock but not crops)  More agriculture required more work than raising animals  This also encouraged the spread of diseases  Rodents would have been more of an inconvenience  Height decreased in areas that adapted agriculture  We shrank by 2-6 inches with adoption of farming  Less time for nursing if had to farm, less healthy  People got more cavities when switched to a diet with more grains that foraging  Life expectancy thus decreased WEEK 3: North America; Finding sources Chapter 5 (pg 104-112) Early American Societies: Connection and Isolation (20,000 bce-1500 ce)  Early in may 1945, as soviet troops captured berlin and ended world war II in Europe, a young soviet soldier saw that the german national library was on fire o He was able to save one book: an exceedingly rare collection of three manuscripts written by the Maya o Maya- an American indian society that had flothished in present day Guatemala and mexico before the 10 century CE  He went on to leave the army (Yuri Knosorov), earned a degree in linguistics, and studied the book that contained symbols or glyphs that represented ideas  Him and Tania proskouriakoff who had a degree in architecture and studied mayan architecture came to one of the greatest intellectual breakthroughs of modern times: the decipherment of mayan writing Origins and Arrival of the Amerinds  Human life originated in eastern Africa and spread outward to other continents through migration  North and south America, remote from eastern Africa, were the last continents to be populated by humans  In most of the western hemisphere, human communities remained small and isolated from one another  In two regions, complex societies did develop o Mesoamerica—comprises mexico and northern central America o and that portion of the Andean mountain range that stretches from Ecuador through peru to Bolivia and northern chile  peoples in these regions were the only ones able to mount organized resistance to the Europeans who invaded in the 16 thcentury ce  the Europeans mistakenly thought that the islands of the Caribbean where they first landed were part of the Spice Islands, or eastern indies o thus called the people they encountered “Indians” o this text calls them Amerinds (American Indians) to distinguish them from the Indians in asia  amerinds moved from the eastern to western hemisphere  debates exist as to how the amerinds crossed from asia to America at least twice during the ice ages of the Pleistocene period o since there were tremendous quantities of water trapped between ice caps and glaciers o the bering strait, separating siberia from Alaska is only 120 feet deep; during the ice ages it stood hundreds of feet above seal level, forming a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska  was used by caribou and other animals  today we know that the amerinds arrived in the Americas from somewhere in asia, but that is all that’s known for certain The Amerinds of North America  American agriculture began in southern mexico  The first people to set foot in north America were nomadic hunter gatherers  Agriculture appeared about 4000 years later beginning before 3000 bce in southern mexico  Maice (corn) appeared in central mexico around 5000 bce  Agriculture thus spread north from Mesoamerica thousands of years after its appearance in the river civilizations of asia, delaying the development of north American settled societies for an equivalent period  Since few north american amerinds had written languages, what we know of their early societies is based largely on archeological evidence and oral tradition  Scholars have categorized their societies (before the European invasion) into four principal types: o Hunter-gatherer bands o Limited-scale tribal societies o Full-scale tribal societies, and o Complex mound-building and trading societies  Two hunter-gatherer bands o Two groups, the Arctic and the Great Basin, lacked any genuine political organization o The environments they lived in hindered organizational development o In the arctic, where eskimo (inuit) people lived, frozen, snow covered ground and brief or nonexistent frowing seasons made organized agriculture impossible o Their icy shelters melted in the summer, discouraging permanent settlement o The preincasion eskimo lived in small nomadic bands under the informal leadership of whoever happened to be the most proficient hunter  Five Limited-Scale Tribal societies o More complex political organization emerged in five regions,w here societies sometimes coalesced into tribes o Tribes—large associations of villages, bands or clans that share a common language and often a common leader; only functioned occasionally o 1) the eastern Canadian SUB-ARCTIC, ALGONQUIN, peoples banded together for the purpose of hunting caribou, a staple of their diet and an animal, that travelled in large herds, was best hunted by groups of at least a few dozen people o 2) northwest coast=lived maritime peoples whose access to rich food sources encourages the formation of densely populated fishing villages  lived largely by hunting and fishing  from the forests built wooden homes and canoes  some formed tribes, others were independent o 3) plateau region—inland areas of Washington, Oregon and Idaho  people were grouped into individual villages but eventually learned tribal organization o 4) Southwest—a variety of societies emerged  ranging from Navajo and apache nomadic bands to the town dwelling pueblo Indians  built walled settlements with central plazas and residences made of adobe brick or masonry  grew maize, squash, beans o 5) californaia—the amerinds lived in extended families organized as small tribes  Four Full-Scale Tribal Societies o 4 groups developed full-scale, continuously functioning tribal organizations o each composed of thousands of people ruled by political chiefs, religious leaders and war chiefs o 1) plains Indians cultivated maize along rivers and hunted buffalo  consisted of many seminomadic tribes  the most highly organized among them were the Cheyenne o 2) in the southeast, amerinds formed powerful tribes in which chiefs exercised total authority over their subjects  some had rigid hereditary castes o 3)eastern woodlands—farming people; grew squash, beans and maize, fished and hunted  lived in villages surrounded by log walls for protection  the haudenosaunee lived in longhouses  aka the league of five nations or Iroquois confederacy  Three Complex societies o Three north American indian groups developed urban economies and complex governance structures similar in some respects to early river civilizations of asia and northeast africa o These complex amerind societies, emerging in the valleys of the ohio and Mississippi rivers, were eventually centered in large cities with specialized occupations and extensive trading networks  Adena and Hopewell, 1000-300 bce  Mississippi society, 700-1500 ce Chapter 17 (pg. 405-409) Amerinds and Europeans in North America  before the 16 thcentury, the peoples of north America were largely isolated from the rest of the world  influenced only by the occasional trade with Mesoamerican cultures that flourished to their south, the numerous tribes and nations of north American amerinds developed distinctive cultures, values, beliefs, and institutions witthut having to deal with outside interference  then, in the 16 century, European explorers began to map the continents coastlines and rivers, looking for gold and a passageway to asia th  in the 17 century, having found neither, Europeans started settling in north America, exploiting its resources and farming its lands  in the process, the intruders displaced the amerinds whose numbers were already diminished by European diseases Coalitions and Contacts  North of mexico there were no great settled empires like those that existed in the easter hemisphere  Most north americans lived in village based societies that rarely included more than a few thousand people  Some societies combined for protection but never surrendered their autonomy  In the 1500s, the Haudenosaunee people of what is now upstate new york organized themselves into a league of 5 nations, later called the Iroquois confederacy o 5 nations included Seneca, mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida The coming of the Europeans  Not long after the first voyage of Columbus, Europeans looking for a new route to asia began arriving in north America  In 1497 italian mariner john cabot explored the northeast coast, staking a claim for his English employers  In 1500, Portuguese explorers reached newfoundland  After 1600, however, as the French, dutch and English challenged the dominance of spain, Europeans began to establish permanent settlements in north America  Enchanted by a voyage up the saint Lawrence river in 1603, French explorer Samuel de champlain helped start a small colony in acadia (now nova scotia) o The next year, he founded a settlement at quebec in 1608 o He eventually established good relations with the regions huron amerinds, using French forces and firearms to help them defeat
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