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Chapter 1

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Mairi Cowan

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Chapter 1: Emergence of Human Societies: EARLIESTANCESTORS: • 5000 years ago – no history record survived (before) • Prehistoric era – study early hominids through fossils, cultural artifacts, genetic comparison with other animals( all human existence before written records) • Early hominids were small, only 3 – 4ft with brains that were smaller and less complex than ours but larger than animals • First hominids – 5 million years ago First indication of conscious cultural behavior – as the onset of the old age stone or Paleolithic – earliest and longest stage of cultural development – lasted 2000000 B.C.E until about 10000B.CE • Hominids developed through cultural adaption through intellectual skills and social skills • Started using stone tools – 2million years ago • Made small kinships – travel place to place • Hunt with crude stone axes • Hurl at their prey • Learn to make fire • Improve speech and memory and the consequence was: o Developed own culture – unique combinations of customs, beliefs, and practices – languages, arts, rituals, institutions and technology o Build knowledge across generation and adapted relatively quickly • Early hominids were scavengers, living in small nomadic groups • Survived by gathering wild berries, nut etc. • Move frequently – look for food and new games • Foragers: group survived by searching and scouring food • No written records of early foragers • These people travel in foragers – 30 -60 ppl • Gender roles played: men hunt, women cook • Women given more importance • Foraging societies have simple structure based on collaboration • Adultery – made decisions Great IceAge – an immense stretch of time (2000000 B.C.E to 8000 B.C.E) • Glacial stages when enormous ice masses called glaciers • Antarctica, northernAmerica, • Tropical regions – did not experience glaciers, their climate fluctuated considerably, bringing major changes in vegetation and animal life • Many mammal migrated during Pleistocene epoch to new habitats • Hominids leftAfrica toAsia • Hominids migrate to Eurasia and adapted the new environment • Adapted to wood, bamboo, rock, shelter, hatchers and hunting axes • Hominid developed to new species homo sapiens - 200,000 - 150,000 years ago • Neanderthals 200,00 to 30,000 years ago – large brain hominids whose remain first found in Germany • Homo sapiens first appeared inAfrica then Eurasia and may have mated in Netherlands • Increase intellect skills and linguistic skills led to improve: reasoning, communication, co-operation and effective tools and skills • Tools, weapons, needle, fishhooks craved from antler, tusks, spear, • Fiber = ropes, lines, nets • Northern regions – lighter skin • Southern regions – darker skin • Race: dividing people into categories based on external characteristics, relies on relatively insignificant distinction • Societies were diverting in clothes, food, languages, beliefs, institution • Started using drawing, artistic skills and symbols to express • NorthernAfrica, south America,Australia, southern Europe – cave • Venus – fertility rites • Foraging groups developed contacts with neighboring so
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