Textbook Notes (369,058)
Canada (162,366)
History (78)
HIS101H5 (20)
Chapter 11

HIS Chapter 11.docx

9 Pages
47 Views

Department
History
Course Code
HIS101H5
Professor
Mairi Cowan

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Description
EarlyAfrican Societies: Before Islam: • Human life evolved inAfrica but it not written in history • What we know aboutAfrican is though legends and folklore (mouth to mouth) • Africa was introduced by invaders, missionaries, Islam, Christianity • African society varied by geographically and climate Bantu Migrations: • Between 500 B.C.E and 1000C.E • Tribes known as African as Bantu • Migrated gradually from their homeland in WestAfrica, near the boundary between Nigeria and Cameroon • Believe they travel from east, central south and spread their knowledge of farming and ironworking • No written accounts of migration • They had mastered agriculture before migrating • Iron for tools, equipment, weapons • clear a forest and cultivate efficiently • Organized into clans and families • Villages, towns, cities were governed by ruling council – composed of male heads of families • Chief – with everything • Decentralized was the system until population increased • 14 century C.E. – centralized Bantu kingdom became known as Kongo had emerged in CentralAfrica • King of Kongo: manage resources, dispense, justice, and defended from external threats • Bantu migrating was ending as Islam was beginning • Muslims emerged fromArabia and NorthAfrica crossed Sahara o Establishing commercial and cultural contacts with West (Ghana, Mali) • Muslims sailed down the eastern coast ofAfrica, binging their language and religion Religion CulturalAdaptions: • Second largest continent • Diversity climate and topography • Deserts: Sahara, Kalahari, Namib – no rain • On both sides of equator, lie a dense rain forest – too much moisture to cultivate • Valleys of Nile, Niger rivers offer settlements • African adapted their culture to their climates • Mild north, the Berbers, Caucasian people adopted Phoenician culture and language, lived along Mediterranean coast o Fished, farmed, maritime commerce with Egyptian, Phoenicians, Greek, Romans o Developed series of trade route by camel o Even conquered byArabs – trained to ethnic heritage • Sudan – south of Sahara (rain forest north) o Cattle, sorghum, millet, yams o Lived in villages, grouping into families and clans o Organizing life to according to cattle and crops o Cattle – symbol of status and wealth  Offer as gift for bride  On divorce – return the cattle o Cow’s blood - desirable beverage o Early resident s of Sudan were Bantu speakers Clans and Kingdoms: • Bantu developed differing social organization • Sub-Saharan – large groups under regional ruler who exercised both spiritual and temporal authority • South – small groups formed coalitions, societies tended to remain stateless – ruled by local chiefs and councils • Central rainforests and Eastern plains, some foraging societies managed survive as small, nomadic clans • Clans provide foundation forAfrican life • Male head, polygamy • Some were matrilineal – trace their ancestors through their mother African Traditional Religion: • Polytheistic • Each god represented a different natural force and different function • Practiced animism – belief that spirits existed that could either help or harm human beings • Cast priest or prophet preformed the rituals • Believed that after death the king was rewarded by becoming a lesser god • Ancestor worship • Bad luck reminder to honor the death • Reinforces royal authority • Muslims arrived – many converted to believe one god EarlyAfrican Culture: • Architecture, art , music, dance reinforce religion • Literature, poetry – chants • Dance to method of communication to ancestor • Music and chant was crucial – birth, coming of age ritual, wedding, political ceremonies, funerals • Woodcarving – mask and head pieces • NEAfrica – religion building out of stone • SAfrica – stone structure as ceremonial purpose • Lived in hut out of mud or thatch • Religion building of durable stone • When Muslims came – learned to build from brick making ISLAMICAFRICAAND SPAIN: COMMERICALAND CULTURAL NETWORKS • NAfrica remained on the margin of Mediterranean commerce and political connections with Rome and Constantinople but orientation changed after becoming the part of Islamic civilization Islam NorthAfrica: • Its culture become isolated after the Roman Empire’s collapse • Populated with Berbers – pursed their own heritage • Christianity flourished in NAfrica • Egyptian faith – Coptic Christianity – Monophysite view of Jesus • Egyptian converted to Islam for not only spiritual reason by economical and practical o No tax for Muslims, free from intimidation or coercion • Islam connects NAfrica and SWAsia Cosmopolitan Umayyad Spain: • Muslims arrived in Spain as guests • Germanic king of Spain died in709 led to contest over his throne– throne appealed to the IslamicAmir of NAfrica for help • He responded by sending anArab Berber expeditionary force under General Tariq ibn Zeya o Defeated about go home but heard rumor about treasure of the ancient Jewish king Solomon was hidden in cellar but he found rats • Next yearAmir himself, conquered Spain with an army of 20000 • Muslims called their new acquired territory al-Andalus as Spaniard called itAndalusia • Spain and NAfrica was linked • Islamic Spain was ruled byAmir – Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus • Umayyad got overthrown byAbbasids – as one son escaped and governed Spain from Cordoba • Ak-Andalus 0 become last bastion of Umayyad – ruled byAbbasid Caliphate • Baghdad – new capital of theAbbasid • As long as Spain remain loyal to Sunni – were willing to leave Spanish Umayyad’s in peace • Arabs created: irrigated garden, splendid mosques, palaces, elegant fountains, courtyards • Science, poetry, philosophy • Muslims married in Spanish families – they join with Spaniards to create a Hispano-Arab • This cosmopolitan culture emerged • Libraries, medicine, mathematics, medical • Figs, dates, tangerines, pears, oranges, apricots, • Exported steel, timber, WAfrica gold • Shiite Fatimid – struggle to break away fromAbbasid and establish own caliphate • The unity of umma shattered • Islamic state of Spain – known as Caliphate of Cordoba – was separate Sunni Muslims • Christians and Jews were not tolerated in Cordoba Fatimid Egypt: • Shiite found refuge • Abbasid rule was stronger inAsia andAr
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit